ESR 172 Final

  1. Structure of an atom
    Proton-middle(positive charge)

    Electron-Outer(negative charge)

    Neutron- Middle(neutral)
  2. Atomic #
    Number of protons
  3. Atomic mass
    Protons plus neutrons
  4. Nuclear energy
    Energy of atomic nucleus
  5. Isotopes
    Same protons-- Different # of neutrons-- Different atomic mass #'s
  6. Radioisotope
    form of an element that spontaneously undergoes radioactive decay
  7. Radioactive decay
    Radioisotope emits radiation and changes to another isotope
  8. Half life
    Time required for one-half of a given amount of an isotope to decay
  9. Nuclear radiation
    Emitted from atomic nucleus as result of radioactive decay and nuclear reactions
  10. Alpha particles
    Two protons and two neutrons
  11. Beta particles
  12. Gamma rays
    Electromagnetic radiation
  13. Rad
    Radiation absorbed dose
  14. Sources of radiation
    • Atomic bomb detonations
    • Uranium mine workers
    • Etc.
  15. Health effects of radiation
    • Vomiting
    • Abortion of pregnancies
    • Cancers (lung, thyroid, etc.)
    • Radiation burns
  16. Fallout
    Deposit of radioactive materials around the world
  17. Radioisotopes affects on environment
    Intense radiation kills organisms directly

    Radioisotopes enter food chains
  18. Meltdown
    Nuclear fuel becomes so hot that it breaches the reactor and contaminates the outside environment with radioactivity (Chernobyl)
  19. More than 99% of the Earth’s total water supply is located in
    • Oceans- 97.2%
    • Ice caps- 2.15%
  20. Off stream use
    • Water removed from its source for use and returned to its source after use
    • Example: water used to cool industrial processes goes to cooling ponds and then discharged to source
  21. In-stream use
    • Use of rivers for
    • Navigation
    • Hydroelectric power generation
    • Fish and wildlife habitats
    • Recreation
  22. Two major uses of water in U.S.
    • Thermoelectric
    • Irrigation
  23. Wetlands
    Areas inundated by water or where the land is saturated to a depth of a few centimeters for at least a few days per year
  24. Natural service functions of wetlands
    • Contaminants and sediments are filtered
    • Saturated soil stores water
    • Bacteria breakdown contaminents
  25. Ground water
    water below the water table
  26. Water table
    Upper surface of groundwater
  27. Aquifier
    Groundwater which can be obtained at a useful rate
  28. Overdraft
    Groundwater withdrawal from wells is greater than natural inflow
  29. BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand)
    Amount of oxygen consumed by microorganisms as they break down organic matter
  30. Dissolved Oxygen Content and BOD
    When BOD high, dissolved oxygen content of water may become too low
  31. Fecal Coliform Bacteria
    • Difficult to monitor disease-carrying organisms directly
    • Presence of fecal coliform bacteria indicates fecal material present
    • Organisms that cause waterborne diseases may be present
  32. Thresholds for Swimming and Drinking Water
    • Drinking water
    • No fecal coliform bacteria

    • Swimming water
    • Not more than 200 cells per 100 ml of water
  33. Cultural Eutrophication
    • Human processes (fertilizers, sewage-treatment plants, etc.) add nutrients to a body of water
    • Effects--
    • Increase in growth of aquatic plants (algae)
    • Water below surface shaded
    • BOD increases when algae die
    • Oxygen content of water reduced
    • Fish and other organisms die
  34. Dead zones
    • Nearshore environments
    • Nitrogen causes cultural eutrophication
    • Low dissolved oxygen concentrations
    • Fish and shrimp swim away
    • Shellfish, crabs, etc. killed
  35. Sediment pollution
    • Rock and mineral fragments (gravel, sand, silt, clay)
    • Results from erosion
  36. Environmental effects of sedimentation
    • Chokes streams
    • Fills lakes, reservoirs, etc.
    • Buries vegetation
    • Smothers coral reefs
  37. Troposphere
    Lower part of the atmosphere (6-8 mi)
  38. Weather and Climate
    • Weather
    • Atmospheric conditions for a region of Earth over short periods of time

    • Climate
    • Atmospheric conditions for a region on Earth over long periods of time
  39. Global warming
    A natural or human-induced increase in the average global temperature of the atmosphere
  40. Anthropogenic processes
    Processes that result from human activities
  41. Sources of C02
    • Combustion of fossil fuels
    • Deforestation

    • Relative contribution
    • 50%-60%
  42. Sources of methane
    • Landfills
    • Production of coal and natural gas
    • Cultivation of rice
    • Raising of cattle

    • Relative contribution
    • 12%-20%
  43. Sources of Chlorofluorocarbons
    • Aerosol propellants in spray cans
    • Refrigeration units

    • Relative contribution
    • 15%-25%
  44. Sources of Nitrous Oxide
    • Agriculture (application of fertilizers)
    • Burning of fossil fuels

    • Relative contribution
    • 5%
  45. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Global Temperature
    Strong correlation
  46. Polar amplification
    Global warming causes greater temperature increases at polar regions because of a positive-feedback mechanism
  47. Rise in sea level with global warming
    • Primary cause
    • Thermal expansion of warming ocean water

    • Secondary cause
    • Melting of glacial ice
  48. Potential effects of a rise in sea level
    • Increased coastal erosion
    • Coastal wetland loss due to landward migration of estuaries and salt marshes
    • Loss of property, whole islands
  49. Limits of tolerance
    Organisms have a range of tolerance and an optimum level for each environmental factor that affects them
  50. Criteria Pollutants
    • Six most common
    • Responsible for most air pollution problems
  51. Sulfer Dioxide
    • Major sources
    • Burning fossil fuels (coal in power plants)

    • Effects
    • Damage to lungs
    • Precursor to acid rain
  52. Nitrogen Oxides
    • Major sources
    • Automobiles
    • Burning fossil fuels (natural gas and coal)

    • Effects
    • Development of smog
    • Precursor to acid rain
  53. Carbon monoxide
    • Major sources
    • Incomplete burning of fuels (automobiles)

    • Effects
    • Reduces oxygen transport
    • Headache, fatigue, nausea
    • Reduces endurance
  54. Ozone
    • A photochemical oxidant in smog
    • Major sources
    • Automobiles
    • Burning fossil fuels

    • Effects
    • Lung and airway damage
    • Kills leaf tissue, whole plants
  55. Particulate Matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5)
    • Major sources
    • Dust from farming
    • Burning fossil fuels

    • Effects
    • Lung cancer
    • Bronchitis
  56. Global dimming
    Gradual reduction in solar radiation that reaches the Earth due to particulate pollution
  57. Pure Rainfall and Acid Rain
    • pH of pure rainfall = 5.6
    • Acid rain is precipitation in which the pH is below 5.6
  58. Formation of acid rain
    • Sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NOx ) major contributors
    • Transformed to sulfuric acid (H2 SO4 ) and nitric acid (HNO3 ) in the atmosphere
  59. Affects of acid rain
    • Forest ecosystems
    • Kills and weakens trees
    • Loss of nutrients from soil
    • Kills fish, aquatic species
    • Loss of nutrients from water
    • Damages building materials
    • Damages lungs when inhaled
  60. Atmospheric inversion
    Warmer air found above cooler air
  61. Photochemical smog
    L.A.-type smog, or brown air
  62. Photochemical smog formation
    Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

    Organic compounds (hydrocarbons)

    Solar radiation (sunlight)
  63. Air Quality Index
    • Describes air pollution on a given day
    • AQI greater than 100 is unhealthy
Card Set
ESR 172 Final
ESR 172 Final