Introduction to Business Practice Chapter 9

  1. Employee behaviour
    The pattern of actions by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly influences the organization's effectiveness
  2. Performance behaviours
    The total set of work-related behavoiours that the organization expects employees to display
  3. Organizational citizenship
    Positive behaviours that do not directly contribute to the bottom line
  4. Counterproductive behaviours
    Behaviours that detract from organizational performance
  5. Absenteeism
    When an employee does not show up for work
  6. Turnover
    Annual percentage of an organization's workforce that leaves and must be replaced
  7. Individuals differences
    Personal attributes that vary from one person to another
  8. Personality
    The relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguish one person from another
  9. EQ -emotional intelligence (emotional quotient)
    The extent to which people are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves, express empathy for others, and possess skills
  10. Attitudes
    A person's beliefs and feelings about specific ideas, situations, or people
  11. Job satisfaction
    Degree of enjoyment that people derive from performing their jobs
  12. Organizational commitment
    An individual's identification with the organization and its mission
  13. Psychological contract
    The set of expectations held by an employee concerning what he or she will contribute to an organization (contributions) and what the organization will provide the employee (inducements) in return
  14. Person-job fit
    The extent to which a person's contributions and the organization's inducements match one another
  15. Motivation
    The set of forces that causes people to behave in certain ways
  16. Classical theory of motivation
    A theory of motivation that presumes that workers are motivated almost solely by money
  17. Scientific management
    Analyzing jobs and finding better, more efficient ways to perform them
  18. Time-and-motion studies
    The use of industrial-engineering techniques to study every aspect of a specific job to determine how to perform it most efficiently
  19. Hawthorne effect
    The tendency for workers' productivity to increase when they feel they are receiving special attention from management
  20. Theory X
    A management approach based on belief that people must be forced to be productive because they are naturally lazy, irresponsible, and unco-operative
  21. Theory Y
    A management approach based on the belief that people want to be productive because they are naturally energetic, responsible, and co-operative
  22. Hierarchy of human needs model
    Theory of motivation describing five levels of human needs and arguing that basic needs bust be fulfilled before people work to satisfy higher-level needs
  23. Two-factor theory
    A theory of human relations developed by Frederich Herzberg that indentifies factors that must be present for employees to be satisfied with their jobs and factors that , if increased, lead employees to work harder
  24. Expectancy theory
    The theory that people are motivated to work toward rewards that they want and that they believe they have a reasonable chance of obtaining
  25. Equity theory
    The theory that people compare (1) what they contribute to their job with what they get in return, and (2) their input/output ratio with that of other employees
  26. Positive reinforcement
    Reward that follows desired behaviours
  27. Punishment
    Unpleasant consequences of an undesirable bahaviour
  28. MBO - Management by objectives
    A system of collaborative goal setting that extends from the top of an organization to its bottom
  29. Participative management and empowerment
    Method of increasing job satisfaction by giving employees a voice in the management of their jobs and the company
  30. Quality circle
    A technique for maximizing quality of production. Employees are grouped into small teams that define, analyze, and sove quality and other process-related problems within their area
  31. Job enrichment
    A method of increasing employees' job satisfaction by extending or adding motivating factors such as responsibility or growth
  32. Job redesign
    A method of increasing employees' job satisfactions by improving the person-job fit through combining tasks, creating natural work groups, and/or establishing client relationship
  33. Flextime
    A method of increasing employees' job satisfaction by allowing them some choice in the hours they work
  34. Compressed workweeks
    Employees work fewer days per week, but more hours on the day they do work
  35. Telecommuting
    Allowing employees to do all of some of their work away from the office
  36. Worksharing (job sharing)
    A method of increasing employee job satisfaction by allowing two people to share one job
  37. Leadership
    The process of motivating other to work to meet specific objectives
  38. Trait approach
    A leadership approach focused on identifying the essential traits that distinguished leaders
  39. Behavioural approach
    A leadership approach focused on determining what behaviours are employed by leaders
  40. Task-focused leader behaviour
    Leader behaviour focusing on how tasks should be performed in order to meet certain goals and to achieve certain performance standards
  41. Employee-focused leader behaviour
    Leader bahaviour focusing on satisfaction, motivation, and well-being of employees.
  42. Situational approach
    Leadership approach that assumes that appropriate leader behaviour varies from one situation to another
  43. Transformational leadership
    The set of abilities that allows a leader to recognize that need for change, to create a vision to guide that change, and to execute the change effectively
  44. Charismatic leadership
    Type of influence based on the leader's personal charisma
  45. Strategic leadership Leader's ability to understand the complexities of both the organization and its environment and to lead change in the organization so as to enhance its competitiveness
  46. Ethical leadership
    Leader behaviours that reflect high ethical standards
  47. Virtual leadership
    Leadership in settings where leaders and followers interact electronically rather than in face-to-face settings
Card Set
Introduction to Business Practice Chapter 9
Introduction to Business Practice Chapter 9