Personnel who are trained to the awareness level are expected to assume the following responsibilities :
- 1. Recognize the presence or potential presence of a hazmat
- 2. Recognize the type of container and identify contents
- 3. Transmit info
- 4. Identify actions to protect self and other from hazards
- 5. Establish scene control
Personnel trained to the Awareness and Operations levels perform only which type of actions?
Operations Missions-Specific competecncies allow responders to perform which actions?
Defensive and limited offensive
HazMat techs and specialists perform which type of tasks?
Full array of both Offensive and Defensive actions
Personnel who are trained to the Operations level are expected to assume the following responsibilities:
- 1. Identify the hazardous material involved in an incident if possible
- 2. Analyze an incident to determine the nature and extent of the problem
- 3. Protect themselves, nearby persons, the environment, and property from the effects of release
- 4. Develop a defensive plan of action
- 5. Implement the plan to mitigate or control
- 6. Evaluate progress
Explain acute exposure to a hazmat and chronic exposure
- Acute- single exposure or several exposures within a short amount of time
- Chronic- long-term reoccurring
Name the Hazmat incidents that have the potential to cause harm? (TRACEM)
- Thermal Hazards
- Radiological Hazards
- Asphyxiation Hazards
- Chemical Hazards(poisons,toxins,irritants,corrosives,carcinogens,allergens)
- Etiological/Biological Hazards
- Mechanical Hazards
- also sometimes phychological
A liquified gas such as propane or carbon dioxide is one that is partially liquid at what temp?
A cryogen is a gas that turns liquid @ or below what temp?
Molten aluminum is generally shipped at temperatures above, what?
DOT defines an elevated temp material as one that when offered for transportation or transported in bulk packaging has one of the following properties:
- 1. Liquid phase at a temp at or above 212F
- 2. Liquid phase with a flash point at or above 100F that is intentionally heated and offered for transportaion at or above it's flash point
- 3. Solid phase at a temperature at or above 464F
The least energetic form is?
The most energetic form is?
Which is of greatest concern for first responders?
- 1. non-ionizing-visible light, radio waves
- 2. ionizing* also greatest concern
Types of ionizing radiation?
Define Alpha radiation
- Energetic, positively charged and emmitted from nucleus during radioactive decay
- characteristics: lose energy rapidly when travelling thru matter. Usually completely blocked by outer, dead skin layer. Can be stopped by a sheet of paper. Very dangerous if inhaled or ingested
Define Beta radiation
- Fast-moving positively or negatively charged electrons.
- characteristics: more penetrating than alpha particles but less damaging. Can penetrate the skin. Travel distances of 20ft but can be reduced or stopped by a layer of clothing or aluminum
Define Gamma radiation
- High energy photons.
- characteristics: They have neither a charge nor a mass but are very penetrating. Can easily pass through the human body or be absorbed by the tissue. Around 2 feet of concrete, several feet of earth, or around 2 inches of lead may be required to stop.
- Ultra-high energy particles that have mass but no electrical charge. Highly penetrating. Fission reactions cause neutrons.
- characteristics: soil moisture density gauges a common source. Health hazard is related to secondary release when interacting within human body
Asphyxiants are? How many classes? What are they?
- Substances which affect the oxygenation of the body and lead to suffocation
- 2 classes
- Simple and chemical
- Simple-gases that dilute or dissipate oxygen when breathing
- Chemical-substances that prohibit the body from using oxygen
Some corrosives are neither acid or base, name 1?
- Acid 0-6.9
- Base 8-14
- Neutral 7
Mechanical Hazards can cause trauma as a result of direct contact with an object...what are the two most common?
Striking and Friction
Explosions can cause the following four hazards:
- 1. Blast-pressure wave* primary reason for injuries and damage
- 2. Shrapnel fragmentaion
- 3. Seismic effect
- 4. Incendiary thermal effect
What are the 3 main routes of entry?
2 other routes?
- Inhalation-process of taking in hazmat by breathing in thru nose or mouth.
- Ingestion-process of taking in materials thru mouth other than breathing
- Skin contact-process of taking in hazmat when it contacts the skin or exposed surface of the body
- Other- Injection- process of taking in materials thru a puncture or break in skin
- Absorbtion- Process of taking in materials thru skin or eyes
4 main angencies involved in regulation of hazardous materials?
- 1. Dept. of Transportation(DOT)
- 2. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA)
- 3. Department of Labor(DOL)
- 4. Nuclear Regulatory Commision(NRC)
- Department of Energy(DOE)-manages national nuclear research and defense programs including storage of high level nuclear waste
- Department of Homeland Security- (DHS) 3 primary missions 1-prevent terrorist attacks in USA 2- reduce vulnerability to terrorism 3- minimize damage
- Consumer Product Safety Commision(CPSC)- household products labeling
- Department of Justice(DOJ)- responsible for assigning responsibilty operational response to threats or acts of terrorism with the USA
Records show the majority of Hazmat incidents involve the following products?
- Flammable/Combustible liquids
- Anhydrous Ammonia
- Many occur during transportation