1. diaphragm
    dome -shaped muscle separating the thorax from the abdomen
  2. external intercostal muscles
    most superficial muscles between ribs, fibers in a �hands-down� position
  3. internal intercostal muscles
    deep to external intercostals, fibers in �hands-up� position
  4. innermost intercostal muscles
    deep to internal intercostals, fibers more horizontal
  5. transversus thoracis muscles
    finger-like muscle on the deep surface of the anterior thoracic wall, it is part of innermost intercostal layer

    • intercostal vein, artery and nerve
    • runs in the costal groove of ribs; may be seen coursing through the middle of the intercostal space on the posterior thoracic wall
  6. internal thoracic vessels
    lateral to the sternum on both sides, internally

    • visceral pleura
    • serous membrane intimately attached to the lungs
  7. parietal pleura
    serous membrane adhering to the inside of the thorax, superior surface of the diaphragm, and lining themediastinum
  8. medistinal parietal pleura
    pleura lining the mediastinum, it contacts the fibrous pericardium
  9. costal parietal pleura
    pleura lining the inside of the ribe cage
  10. diaphragmatic parietal pleura
    pleura covering the diaphragm
  11. apical/cervical parietal pleura
    pleura forming dome-like shape over the apex of the lungs(this is also called the �cupola� � which refers to �little dome�)
  12. pleural cavities
    space between the parietal & visceral pleura
  13. Lungs surfaces
    • diaphragmatic inferior surface of lung close to diaphragm
    • costal surface in contact with ribs
    • mediastinal medial surface that faces mediastinum, contains root of lung structures
  14. apex
    superior aspect of lung, projects above rib 1
  15. root of the lung
    • structures entering or leaving the lung
    • pulmonary a.
    • left lung � pulmonary a. is superior to main bronchus
    • right lung � pulmonary a. is anterior to bronchus
    • pulmonary v.
    • left lung � pulmonary v. is anterior & inferior to bronchus
    • right lung � pulmonary v. is anterior & inferior to pulmon. a.
    • main bronchus
    • left lung � bronchus is inf. to pulmonary. a.
    • right lung � bronchus is post. to pulmonary a.

    • esophagus
    • posterior to the trachea & heart
    • posterior to the trachea
  16. esophageal plexus
    network of nerve fibers on the esophagus
  17. sympathetic chain ganglia or trunk
    courses on the lateral sides of the vertebral column
  18. greater thoracic splanchnic ns.
    courses inferomedially from the sympathetic trunk,immediately posterior to the heart
  19. vagus nerve
    courses posterior to root of the lung toward esophagus
  20. anterior vagal trunk
    on the anterior surface of the esophagus immediately superior to the diaphragm
  21. azygos vein
    ascends on the ant. surf. Of vertebral bodies, post. to the esophagus, then arches over the root of the lung on the right side of the body to enter SVC
  22. thoracic duct
    runs between the azygos v. and the aorta on the anterior surface of the vertebral column
  23. descending (thoracic) aorta
    descends inferiorly to the left of the esophagus
  24. diaphragm openings:
    • IVC opening in diaphragm where IVC passes through
    • Esophageal opening in diaphragm where esophagus passes thru
    • Aortic opening in diaphragm for aorta (DO NOT ID)
  25. brachiocephalic vs.
    tributaries that unite superior to the right side of the heart to form the SVC
  26. superior vena cava (SVC)
    located along the superior right margin of the heart
  27. aortic arch
    continuation of the ascending aorta (at the T4 level)
  28. brachiocephalic a. (or trunk)
    1st branch of aortic arch (most to the right)
  29. left common carotid a.
    2nd branch of aortic arch (betw/ brachiocephalic trunk and left subclavian a.)
  30. left subclavian a.
    3rd branch of aortic arch (most to the left)
  31. phrenic nerve
    runs anterior to the root of the lung structures
  32. left vagus nerve
    courses inferiorly over the arch of the aorta
  33. left recurrent laryngeal n.
    branches from l. vagus; hooks around aortic arch
  34. tracheal bifurcation
    deep to the pulmonary trunk and as., T4-T5 level
  35. primary (or main) bronchi
    two main branches of the trachea that extend from tracheal bifurcation and help form root of lung
  36. ligamentum arteriosum
    between pulmonary trunk and aortic arch
Card Set
Thoracic Relations