The first step in glycolysis is the conversion of
glucose + ATP --> ? + ADP + H
The enzyme that catylzes the first step of glycolysis is _______ (glucose --> glucose 6-phosphate)
The 2nd step in glycolysis is the conversion of glucose 6-phosphate ---> ?
The enzyme that catalyzes the second step of glycolysis is ________ (glucose 6-phosphate --> fructose 6-phosphate)
The 3rd step of glycolysis is the conversion of fructose 6-phosphate + ATP---->? + ADP + H
The enzyme that catalyzes the third step of glycolysis is __________ (fructose 6-phosphate --> fructose 1,6-bisphosphate)
The 4th step of glycolysis is the conversion of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate ---> ?
dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) + glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP)
The enzyme that catalyzes the fourth step of glycolysis is _________ (fructose 1,6 bisphosphate --> GAP + DHAP)
Can DHAP enter glycolysis directly?
In the fifth step of glycolysis DHAP can be converted to ---> ?
GAP (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate)
The 6th step of glycolysis is in which GAP + Pi + NAD is converted to ---> ?
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate + NADH + H
The enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of DHAP to GAP is _____ (Fifth step of glycolysis)
Triose phosphate isomerase
The enzyme that catalyzes the 6th step of glycolysis is _________ ( GAP --> 1,3-BPG)
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
The 7th step in glycolysis is the conversion of 1,3-BPG + ADP ----> ?
3-phosphoglycerate + ATP
The enzyme that catalyzes the seventh step of glycolysis is ____ (1,3 BPG + ADP --> 3-phosphoglycerate + ATP)
The 8th step of glycolysis is the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate --> ?
The enzyme that catalyzes the eigth step of glycolysis is _________ (3-phosphoglycerate --> 2-phosphoglycerate)
The ninth step glycolysis is the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate ---> ??
phosphoenolpyruvate + H2O
The enzyme that catalyzes the ninth step of glycolysis is ______ (2-phosphoglycerate --> phosphoenolpyruvate + H20)
The tenth step of glycolysis is the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate + ADP + H ---> ?
pyruvate + ATP
The enzyme that catalyzes the tenth step of glycolysis is ______ (phosphoenolpyruvate + ADP ---> pyruvate + ATP)
The 3 allosteric enzymes in glycolysis are ___, ____, ____
Hexokinase, phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase
What are the 3 regalatory enzymes of glycolysis?
Hexokinase, PFK (Phosphofructokinase), pyruvate kinase
Galactose enters the glycolytic pathway by being converted to _____ in _____ number of steps.
glucose 6-phosphate, 4
Fructose can enter the glycolytic pathway by the _______ pathway in the liver, while in other tissues fructose can be phosphorylated into the glycolytic intermediate ________ by hexokinase.
fructose 1-phosphate pathway, fructose 6-phosphate
The fructose 1-phosphate pathway, in the liver, takes fructose to ______ by the enzyme _____ in the first step. This product is then split into ______ and ______, an intermediate in glycolysis. The aldol cleavage in the second step is catalyzed by a specific fructose 1-phosphate aldolase.
fructose 1-phosphate, fructokinase. Glycer
aldehyde, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP).
Glyceraldehyde enters into the glycolytic pathway by being converted into _______ by the enzyme ______
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, hexokinase
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is compsed of what 3 enzymes?
E1- Pyruvate dehydrogenase component E2- Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase E3- Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase
The cofactor required for pyruvate dehydrogenase is _______
TPP (thiamine pyrophosphate)
The cofactor required for dihydrolipoyl transacetylase is __________
The cofactor (prosthetic group) required for dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase is _______
Pyruvate dehydrogenase, which converts pyruvate to acetly CoA requires the 5 coenzymes __ __ __ __ and ___
1.) TPP (thiamin pyrophosphate) 2.) lipoic acid 3.) FAD 4.) Coenzyme A (CoA) 5.) NAD+
PDH is inhibited in E1 by ______, E2 by _____ and E3 by _______
E1- COVALENTLY MODIFIEDE2- acetly CoA E3- NADH
decarboxylase requires the coenzyme _____
carboxylase requires the coenzyme _______
dehydrogenase requires the coenzymes ____, ____, ____
NAD+, FAD, NADP+
NAD and NADP+ uses what vitamin?
iacin for N AD)
FAD and FMN uses what vitamin?
Riboflavin (remember ribo
lavin for f AD)
What is the only enzyme of the TCA cycle
NOT in the mitochondrial cytoplasm?
Succinate dehydrogenase, (it is on the mitochondrial inner membrane)
What does the enzyme pyruvate carboxylase catalyze?
Pyruvate ----> oxaloacetate
What does the enzyme pyruvate kinase catalyze?
Phosphoenolpyruvate -----> pyruvate, (this is covalently modified when inhibited, witht he L form in the liver and the M form in the muscle and brain)
What does the enzyme pyruvate decarboyxlase catalyze?
pyruvate -----> acetaldehyde (the first step of converting to pyruvate to ethanol in the fermentation pathway. The second step is acetaldehyde to ethanol by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase)
What does the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase catalyze?
Pyruvate------> Acetly CoA
True or false: Phosphofructokinase uses ATP as both a substrate and an alosteric regulator?