average oral/ tympanic temperature for adults.
98.6 F ( 37 C )
Average rectal temperature for adults.
99.5 F ( 37.5 C) - the warmest temp.
Average axillary temperaturefor adults.
97.7 F ( 36.5 C)
Pulse rate for adults?
60- 100 beats per minute
Respirations for adults?
12 to 20 breaths per minute
average blood pressure and pulse pressure for adults?
30 to 50 mm Hg
Body temperature is
heat produced by body processes - the amount of heat lost to the external enviironment
heat produced - heat lost
Site of temperature measurement?
- tympanic membrane
- temporal artery
- pulmonary artery
- urinary bladder
Core temperature measurement sites?
- Tympanic Membrane
- Temporal artery
Surface temperature measurement sites?
the abilty of a person to control body temperature depends on
- 1) the degree of temperature exteme
- 2) the person's ability to sense feeling comfortable or uncomfortable
- 3) thought process or emotions
- 4) the person's mobility or ability to remove or add clothes
Factors affecting body temperature
- Hormone level
- Circadian Rhythm
The transfer of heat from the surface of one object to the surface of another without direct contact between the two.
The transfer of heat from one object to another with direct contact. Small amount of heat lost
The transfer of heat away by air movement. for example a fan
The transfer of heat energy when when a liquid is chaqnged to gas
Changes in body temperature outside the usual range affect the hypothalmic set point. these changes are related to excess heat production, excess heat loss, minimal heat production, or any combination is..
Phases of Pyrexia (fever)
- - Pyrogens such as bacteria and viruses elevate body temp, they act as antigens and trigger immune system responses
- -the hypothalamus reacts to the raise in set point and the body responds by producing and conserving energy.
- - serveral hours later the body reaches a new set point. during this period the person experiences chills, shivers and feels cold, even though body temp is rising
- - the phase resolves when the new set point, a higher temp is achieved.
- -the next phase is the plateau, the chills subdue and the personf eels warm and dry. If the new set point is "overshot", or the pyrogens are removed, the third phase of a febrile episode occures.
- - the hypothalamus set point drops, initiating heat loss responses. The skin becomes warm and flushed because of vasodilation.
- - When the fever "breaks" the client becomes afebrile
produces angina (chest pain)
An elevated body temperature related to the body's inability to promote heat loss or reduce heat production is
fever is an upward shift in the set point, hyperthermia results from an overload of the body's thermoregulatory mechanisms. Any disease of trauma to ther hypothalamus impairs heat-loss mechanisms.
Hereditary condition of uncontrolled heat production, occuring when susceptible persons receive certain anesthetic drugs
Classification of hypothermia
- Mild : 93.2 -96.8 F or 34-36 C
- Moderate: 86.0-93.2F or 30-34C
- Severe: <86.0 F or <30 C
Heat loss during prolonged exposure to cold overwhelms the body's ability to produce heat, causing ________. Which is caused by core temp measurements
Rectal temperatures are usually 0.9 F or 0.5 C higher than oral temperatures, and axillary temps are usually 0.9 F or 0.5 C lower than oral temperatures
convert C to F is to multiply C by 1.8, and then add 32.
To go from F to C, you take F, subtract 32, then divide by 1.8.
easy way to get a rough estimate a rough estimate of C-> F is to double it then add 30
easy way to get a rough estimate F->C subtract 30 then take half of it