Maintenance of a stable internal environment
What are the three main parts of a cell?
- Cell membrane
- Cell nucleus
What three things easily pass through a cell membrane?
What is the site of communication and transport within the cell?
- Endoplasmic reticulum
- (also responsible for protein and lipid synthesis)
What does protein synthesis?
What refines, packages and delivers proteins?
What synthesizes ATP for the cell?
- aka the powerhouse of the cell
What is the movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to low concentration?
What is the diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane?
What is the movement of molecules from an area of low concentration to high concentration?
What happens during interphase?
- Duplication of cell contents; prepping for reproduction.
- It is a very active period.
What is the movement of a molecule that is too large to enter through normal circumstances?
What is the metabolic reaction involved in building tissue, cell growth and repair?
- Small molecules joined together to create larger molecules.
- Requires energy.
- Aka dehydration synthesis
What is the metabolic reaction used to break down tissue?
- Large molecules broken down to smaller molecules.
- Energy is released.
- Aka hydrolysis
What are proteins whose function is to control the rate of reactions?
What are the four signs of inflammation?
What layer of skin is affected with a first degree burn?
What layers of skin are affected with a second degree burn?
- Dermis and epidermis
- Blistering usually occurs
What layers of skin are affected with a third degree burn?
- Epidermis, dermis and accessory organs
- The injured skin becomes dry and leathery and may vary in color from red to black to white.
What are the membrane-like layers of unspecialized connective tissue that diffferentiates into osteoblasts?
- Intramembranous bone
- Aka intramembranous ossification
- i.e. skull bones
What is bone tissue that replaces hyaline cartilage?
- Endochondral bon
- Aka endochondral ossification
- It's the most common
- i.e. femur bone
What is the function of the epiphyseal plate?
What is the name given to the process that occurs in every cell in our body on a chemical level?
Name the structures of a skeletal muscle.
- Muscle fibers (muscle cells)
- Filaments (actin and myosin)
What are the two types of myofibril filaments that function in muscle contraction?
- Actin (thin)
- Myosin (thick)
What are the segments of myofibrils between Z lines?
What is the site where motor nerve fibers (axons) and muscle fibers meet?
Motor neuron and the muscle fibers it controls
What is the neurotransmitter that motor neurons use to control skeletal muscle?
- It is stored in the synaptic knob and released into a synaptic cleft when a nerve impuls reaches the end of an axon.
What type of cellular respiration is not dependent on oxygen?
- It breaks down glucose into a few molecules of ATP
What type of cellular respiration requires oxygen?
- Breaks down glucose into many molecules of ATP
What muscle protein stores oxygen in muscle tissue?
The minimal stimulus needed to produce a muscle contraction (twitch)
- Threshold stimulus
- (It's an all or none response)
A rapid series of stimuli that causes individual muscle twitches to combine.
Infrared head rays escape from warmer surfaces to cooler surroundings. These rays radiate in all directions.
- Primary means of heat loss
Heat loss directly to a cooler object (that is in contact with its surface)
Heat lost to air; cooler air replaces air warmed by the body
Sweat turns from liquid to gas taking heat with it away from the skin
If hypothermia is not treated it can lead to...
mental confusion, loss of reflexes and consciousness and shutting down of organs
Five functions of bones
- Support and protect
- Body movement
- Blood cell formation (red marrow)
- Yellow marrow (stores fat)
- Inorganic salt storage (calcium and phosphorous)
What functions in the formations of red blood cells, white blood cels and platelets?
Red marrow in bones
What holds on to calcium and releases it into the cytosol when muscle fibers need to contract?
What theory explains that sarcomeres shorten during muscle contraction?
- Sliding filament theory
- The filaments slide past one another.
The amount of oxygen required to convert lactic acid back to glucose in the liver, and restore original amounts of oxygen, ATP, and CP.
Length of muscle changes during contraction
Muscle stays the same length during contraction
Slow twitch or fast twitch: The red fibers that are resistant to fatigue, good blood supply, and a lot of myoglobin/mitochondria. They tend to be postural muscles.
Slow twitch or fast twitch: The white fibers that have a high rate of fatigue, poor blood supply, less mitochondria/myoglobin, and extensive SR that allows muscle to contract very quickly.
Nerve cells have one axon but can have many...
What receives input and transmits a nerve impulse to the nerve cell body?
What cells form myelin sheaths around axons in the PNS?
What forms myelin sheaths around axons in the CNS?
- Lack a neurolemma
Where are Schwann cells found?
Around axons in the peripheral nervous system
How neurons transmit info to other neurons or cells
- Nerve impulse
- (dendrites -> soma -> axon)
Nerve impulses from the CNS conducted to effectors (muscles or glands) via...
motor nerves (PNS)
Neurons that conduct imulse from PNS to CNS
Sensory neurons (afferent = ascending)
Neurons located in the CNS that form links between other neurons
Neurons that conduct impulses out of CNS to effectors (muscles and glands)
Motor neurons (efferent = exit, either excite or inhibit)
In which nervous system are nerve axons more likely to regenerate?
- CNS unlikely to regenerate because oligodendrocytes don't proliferate
Sodium-Potassium Pump: high concentration of ____ ions inside cell
- (overal positive charge)
By what mechanism is the concentration of sodium/potassium maintained?
Na/K pump using active transport
Order of ions and how easily they diffuse
- Potassium (easiest)
- Calcium (most difficult)
- Phosphate, sulfate and proteins are trapped inside cell because of their size (negative charge)
Chemical communicators used by neurons