1. The Skeletal System Consists of:
    • 206 Bones (in most people;some differ in bones in coccyx and ribs)
    • Joints (the space where two bones meet)
    • Related Connective Tissue: Ligaments, tendons,periosteum
  2. The functions of the skeletal system are?
    • 1.Serve a firm framework for the body
    • 2.Protect delicate structures, for example brain and spinal cord
    • 3.Work as levers for muscles so muscles can produce movement
    • 4.Store Calcium and phosphorus;help keep calcium in blood at normal level
    • 5.Produce blood cells in the red bone marrow (stem cells produced in red marrow and form all blood cells, WBC,RBC and platelettes)
  3. Osteoblasts
    Bone building cells
  4. Osteoclasts
    Bone destroying (break down)
  5. Osteocytes
    Maintains existing bone
  6. Compact Bone
    dense,hard,found near bone surface for strength
  7. Spongy Bone
    softer,jelly-like, found in epiphysis and the marrow cavity
  8. Bone projection: Head
    Rounded,knoblike end of a bone
  9. Bone projection: Process
    large part of a bone that juts out
  10. Bone Projection:Crest
    ridge of bone
  11. Bone projection: Spine
    sharp projection of bone
  12. Bone Depression:Foramen
    • hole in a bone
    • Foramen Magnum; place where the spinal cord enters the cranium
  13. Bone Depression:Sinus
    • an air space found in some skull bones
    • {every sinus has mucus membrane lining}
    • Sinuses fit the definition of exocrine glands
  14. Bone Depression:Fossa
    • depression (dent) in bone
    • example:sphenoid bone goes across underneath brain with fossa that encloses around the pituitary gland protecting it
  15. Axial skeleton
    • skull,vertebral column, ribs, and sternum
    • *sacrum is part of axial skeleton
  16. Appendicular skeleton
    bones of the upper and lower extremities, shoulder girdle, pelvic (hip) girdle.
  17. Periosteum
    • connective tissue membrane covering a bone
    • (doesn't cover ends of bone)
    • (ligaments are an extension of periosteum)
  18. Diaphysis
    main shaft of a bone
  19. Epiphysis
    expanded end of a bone
  20. Articular cartilage
    found at ends of epiphyses for cushioning at joint
  21. Epiphyseal cartilage
    cartilage found near the ends of bones; concerned with the growth of bone in children
  22. Marrow Cavity
    space within the diaphysis, where yellow marrow forms
  23. Endosteum
    lining of marrow cavity
  24. Yellow Bone Marrow
    fatty connective tissue that fills the marrow cavity; jellylike
  25. Red Bone Marrow
    tissue which manufactures stem cells (produces all types of blood cells) found near the ends of long bones and the center of other bones
  26. Suture Lines
    are joints where skull bones meet
  27. Skull consists of how many bones?
  28. 1 Bone makes up forehead area
    Frontal bone
  29. Parietal Bones
    2 bones that cover the top and sides of head (mostly the top)
  30. What area can you find the ear canal foramen?
    Temporal bones there are 2, temporal pulse can be found here as well as mastoid process
  31. This skull bone goes across the skull underneath the brain and protects the pituitary gland.
    Sphenoid bone made up of 1 bone
  32. Occipital bone
    1 bone located at the lower back of skull
  33. Maxilla
    2 bones that comprise the upper jaw, are fused together and function as one bone
  34. Mandible
    • Lower jaw 1 bone
    • try not to dribble on your mandible
  35. Zygomatic bones
    2 bones make up the "cheek bones"
  36. Cervical Vertebrae
    • Comprised of 7 vertebrae located in the neck
    • 1st vertebrae Atlas (holding up weight of skull)
    • 2nd Axis (allows for head rotation)
  37. Thoracic Vertebrae
    • comprised of 12 bones located right below cervical vertebrae
    • run the length of the thoracic cavity
    • and form a joint with each rib
  38. Lumbar vertebrae
    • comprised of 5 bones located in the small of the back
    • most likely to be injured from improper body mechanics while lifting or moving heavy object
  39. Sacrum
    comprised of 1 bone in adults (5 in young child which fuse together by adulthood)
  40. Coccyx
    comprised of 1 bone (4-5 bones in yound children) tailbone, coccygial vertebrae
  41. Vertebrae parts
    spinous process, transverse process, spines on the sides of the vertebrae
  42. Intervertebral foramina
    hole for spinal cord
  43. Intervertebral discs
    located between all vertebrae
  44. What is the function of the "S" shape curves in the spinal column?
    to make the spine stronger
  45. Kyphosis
    exaggeration of thoracic curve
  46. Lordosis
    exaggeration of lumbar curve
  47. Scoliosis
    located anywhere in the vertebrae but curves to the side (left or right)
  48. There are a total of____pairs of ribs
  49. True ribs
    • upper 7 pairs
    • called true ribs because all 7 connect to sternum via
    • it's own cartilage
  50. False ribs
    • lower pairs 8-10
    • only connect to sternum via cartilage from rib #7
  51. Floating ribs
    • lower pairs 11-12
    • form joints with the thoracic vertebrae in the back
    • but do not do so in the front
  52. Where is the Xiphoid process located on the sternum?
    • inferior to the sternum (lowest part of sternum)
    • if CPR done incorrectly this can break off and puncture the lungs and/or heart
  53. Scapula
    • comprised of 2 bones one on each side of the body
    • acromion process
    • and glenoid cavity found here (dent where humerus goes)
  54. Clavicle
    • comprised of 2 bones, rests on top of sternum medially
    • laterally forms joint with acromion process
  55. Humerus
    • 2 bones one on each side of body
    • makes up upper arm area
  56. Olecranon process
    is what makes up the elbow, where you bang your funny bone
  57. Carpals
    16 bones, 8 each wrist
  58. Metacarpals
    10, 5 bones each hand
  59. Phalanges
    • 28, 14 phalanges each hand
    • 3 bones each finger
    • 2 each thumb
  60. Image Upload 1
    Full skeleton
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