Describe the process of transduction
the change in a specific cellular activity brought about by a transduced signal from outside the cell
Compare and contrast local and long distance regulations
local communication has 2 types of signaling
1) paracrine - local regulators signal the molecules and non neurons signal paracrine
2) synaptic - neuro-transmitters signal the molecules and nerves release neurotransmitters
3)Hormones signal long distance communication. the cells of the endocrine system communicate this way.
Describe how signals are transmitted between cells. Name and describe the 3 phases of cellular communication
reception, transduction, response
Compare and contrst DNA replication on the lagging and leading strand.
leading strand runs in the 3 to 5 direction. lagging strand runs in the 5 to 3 direction. they run in opposite directions
DNA replication results in one _________ and one __________ strand
(I don't know the answer)
What is the function of primase?
synthesizes short segments of RNA so that the DNA can be replicated
Response lease to regulation of _______ or _____
Genes cytoplasmic activites
Which type of molecule acts like an on/off switch for a receptor?
The G protein coupled receptor
list and describe the features of the four receptor types.
G protein coupled receptor - acts as an on/off switch, carries signal.
Receptor tyrosine kinases - abnormal functioning can lead to cancer. attach phosphates tyrosine, can trigger multiple signals at once
Ion channel receptor - gated and specific intracellular receptor
What is the feature of membrane protein receptor?
Are commonly found embedded in the plasma membrane
Compare and contrast paracrine and synaptic signaling
Paracrine - Signaling molecules are the local regulators. non neurons signal paracrine
Synaptic - The signaling molecules are neurotransmitters. Nerves singal synaptic
Describe the process of resonse
The conversation of a signal from outside the cell to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response
Describe the process of reception
involves receptor proteins embedded in the membrane
What is the function of DNA polymerase 1
Removes the RNA nucleotides from the primer and adds dquivelent DNA molecules
What is the function of ligase
Connects the gaps on the newly replicated strand
What is the function of DNA plymerase III
adds on the nucleotides based on the template strand
What is the function of helicase
separeates the SNA strands during replication