Jazz Test 2

  1. What style period is Paul Whitman associated with?
    • Swing
    • His career pans between early jazz and swing
  2. Where was Paul Whiteman based?
    New York
  3. Early big band experiements are associated with whom?
    Paul Whiteman
  4. How many players were in Paul Whiteman experiment with in his big band?
  5. Paul whiteman had an eclectic style that straddled the line between_____.
    classical and jazz
  6. What is Rhapsody in Blue?
    • a clarinet concerto written in a "jazzy" style
    • Paul Whiteman commissioned Gershwin to write it.
  7. Paul Whiteman hired various_____
    outside arrangers
  8. Paul Whitman focused on ____ and ____ and dubbed himself ____.
    • PR and Commercial appeal
    • "the King of Jazz"
  9. Who dubbed himself "the king of jazz"?
    Paul Whiteman
  10. Fletcher Henderson has experience as____
    a Tin Pan Alley pianist, and he arranged his own charts
  11. What style period is Fletcher Henderson associated with?
  12. Who was one of the first significant jazz arrangers?
    Fletcher Henderson
  13. Where was Fletcher Henderson active?
  14. What is fletcher henderson known for?
    utilizing the best soloists
  15. What soloists did fletcher henderson use?
    • Saxes: Coleman Hawkins, Benny Carter, Lester Young
    • Trumpets: Louis Armstrong, Roy Eldridge, Rex Stewart
  16. Who perfected techniques of block voicing?
    Fletcher Henderson
  17. the melody is the top voice of a series of chords, and each note in a chord is assigned to a different instrument or combination of instruments.
    Block voicing
  18. What does block voicing produce?
    a thicker sound than if the line were not harmonized
  19. Fletcher Henderson is associated with what instrument?
  20. Who made jazz music popular?
    Paul Whiteman
  21. What famous soloists did Paul Whiteman utilize?
    • Frankie Trambauer (Tram)
    • Bix Biederbeck (Bix)
  22. Who was fletcher henderson highly influenced by?
    Paul Whiteman
  23. Who invented block voicing?
    Fletcher Henderson
  24. What musical instrument did Count Basie play, and who was he influenced by?
    • originally a stride pianist
    • Fats Waller
  25. count basie is associated with what style period?
  26. The Basie Band is know for ____
    relaxed style and simplicity---AKA the "Kansas City Style"
  27. Where did Count Basie's band develop?
    Kansas City
  28. Whose band did Basie take over?
    Bennie Moten's band after Moten's death
  29. led the first rhythm section in jazz history that consistently swung in a smooth, relaxed way
    Count Basie
  30. Who is Taxi War Dance by?
    Count Basie Big Band
  31. Count Basie arrangements:
    riff/head arrangments were constructed by the band; not all composed arrangements
  32. Who was the most creative and prolific composer-arranger in jazz hisotry
    Duke Ellington
  33. Who led the most stable and longest lived big band?
    Duke Ellington
  34. What instrument did duke ellington play?
    stride piano background, following James P. Johnson
  35. Who wrote more than 2000 compositions as well as many arrangments and rearrangements for them?
    Duke Ellington
  36. Duke Ellington had a highly experimental compositional style:
    • advanced harmonies
    • utilized the individualistic strengths of his band members as a way to structure compositions
  37. What core musicians did Duke Ellington retain?
    Johnny Hodges, Cootie Williams, Harry Carney, Billy Strayhorn,
  38. What songs did Duke Ellington write?
    • Harlem Airshaft
    • Cottontail
  39. Where was Duke Ellington from ?
  40. One of Ellington's greatest skills as an arranger was that of ....
    capitalizing on the uniquely personal sounds of individual players
  41. Where was Benny Goodman based?
  42. Who was Benny Goodman influenced by?
    Austin High Gang---especially Frank Teschemacher
  43. What instrument did Benny Goodman play?
    Clarinet; and he was star soloist in his band
  44. Who was named the "king of swing"?
    Benny Goodman
  45. What band was by far the most popular of all swing bands?
    Benny Goodman's
  46. Who were some notable alumni of Benny Goodman's band?
    • Charlie Christian (guitar)
    • Lionel Hampton (vibes)
  47. Benny Goodman hired outside arrangers such as?
    Fletcher Henderson
  48. What did Benny Goodman's hiring of outside arrangers result in?
    popularization and commercialization of black music
  49. Who led first interacial group in jazz history (1936)?
    Benny Goodman
  50. Who was in Benny Goodman's interracial group?
    • Benny Goodman
    • Gene Krupa
    • Teddy Wilson
  51. How was an interracial jazz group possible?
    only possible due to commercial success (avoided touring in Jim Crow South)
  52. What happened 10 years before Jackie Robinson, and 20 before civil rights movement?
    Benny Goodman led 1st interracial group in jazz history
  53. influenced almost every jazz musician who played clarinet after him?
    Benny Goodman
  54. What music did Benny Goodman record?
    "Seven Come Eleven"
  55. What was the International Sweethearts of Rhythm?
    a popular all-female band in the 1940s
  56. What style period is the international sweethears of rhythm associated with?
  57. Duke Ellington is associated with what style period?
  58. Benny Goodman is associated with what style period?
  59. How did the international sweethearts of rhythm begin?
    as a school fundraising venture, later supported by a wealthy Virginian
  60. This band featured members of mixed races--white, black, puerto rican, and asian.
    The international sweethearts of rhythm
  61. The international sweethearts of rhythm had what kind of leaders, arranger?
  62. Where did the international sweethearts of rhythm tour?
    nationally; unlike goodman, they toured the south (avoided jim crow laws by living in the bus)
  63. At the height of civilian bandleading career, he voluntarily joined the military and convinced the army to place him "in charge of a modernized Army band."
    Glenn Miller
  64. Glenn Miller is associated with what style period?
  65. Stan Kenton is associated with what style period?
  66. associated with progressive jazz?
    Stan Kenton
  67. Changed big band jazz into an art-form (music not for dancing)
    Stan Kenton
  68. Wagner is to Opera as ____ is to Jazz
    Stan Kenton
  69. What is progressive jazz?
    • big band arranging style
    • thick voicings, heavy brass, harmonic and rhythmic complexity
  70. Who else, besides Stan Kenton, changed big band jazz into an art-form?
    • Ellington: Jazz suites, Carnegie Hall
    • Goodman's commissions by classical composers (Copland, Bartok, Hindemith)
  71. Who are the 3 jazz divas and what style period are they associated with?
    • Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, Sarah Vaughn
    • Swing
  72. known as "Lady Day"
    Billie Holiday
  73. This jazz diva:
    no improvisation (no scatting)
    poor range
    Billie Holiday
  74. What is billie holiday remembered as?
    an innovator for her ability to express emotion?
  75. Billie holiday was a jazz singer. Her rpertoire includes?
    • mostly popular and show tunes
    • borrowing from jazz horn players, not previous blues singers
  76. What bands did billie holiday sing in?
    Basie, Goodman, small group with Lester Young
  77. This Jazz Diva had:
    wide range
    highly technical ability
    Ella Fitzgerald
  78. The first major soloist primarily as a scat singer
    Ella Fitzgerald
  79. had massive success outside of jazz-as a popular tune singer?
    Ella Fitzgerald
  80. What band did Ella Fitzgerald front?
    Chick Webb Band
  81. This Jazz diva:
    low range
    primarily a singer, rarely a scat soloist
    Sarah Vaughn
  82. Sarah Vaughn's career begins in mid 1940s with---
    pianist Earl Hines' band (alonside male vocalist Billy Eckstine)
  83. Sarah Vaughn is primarily known for her ability to?
    alter pitch, tone, and rhythms while singing melodies
  84. Coleman Hawkins is associated with what style period?
  85. What instrument did Coleman hawkins play?
    tenor sax; henderson band; smallgroup
  86. this man is generally considered to be the first important jazz tenor saxophonist
    Coleman Hawkins
  87. Lester Young is associated with what style period?
  88. What instrument did lester young play?
    tenor sax
  89. Basie's most notable soloist during the 1930s and 40s was?
    lester young
  90. "father of the tenor sax"
    coleman hawkins
  91. after him tenor sax was part of jazz band
    coleman hawkins
  92. What music did coleman hawkins record?
    • Body and soul
    • -focused on improv from beginning to end
  93. In "Body and Soul," 1st time in jazz history, where ___
    tune is never really given, focused on improv
  94. Lester young recorded what music?
    taxi war dance
  95. How do lester young and coleman hawkins sounds differ?
    • Young offered a clear alternative to the heavy tone, fast vibrato, and complicated style of Hawkins.
    • Young: light and simplified
    • Hawkins: lots of arpeggios and heavy vibrato
  96. This tenor saxophonist had a small group with Billie Holiday?
    Lester Young
  97. Art Tatum is associated with what style period?
  98. considered the greatest stride pianist
    Art Tatum
  99. Errol Garner is associated with what style period?
  100. What instrument is errol garner associated with?
    small group pianist
  101. Who did Art Tatum influence?
    Bud Powell and Lennie Tristano
  102. mary lou williams is associated with what style period?
  103. mary lou williams playes what instrument?
    piano (various styles)/arranger
  104. the first virtuoso on the vibes
    lionel hampton
  105. lionel hampton is associated with what style period?
  106. Lionel hampton played what instrument?
  107. Charlie Christian is associated with what style period?
  108. What instrument did Charlie Christian play?
  109. single string soloing technique, later electric
    charlie christian
  110. Who did Charlie Christian influence?
    Wes Montgomery
  111. whose band was christian in?
    • benny goodman's band
    • 2nd black member
  112. Django Reinhardt and Stephane Grappelli are associated with what style period?
  113. Django Reinhardt played what instrument?
  114. stephane grappelli played what instrument?
  115. After reinhardt lost 2 of his fingers how did he adapt?
    he plaed solo single-string
  116. What band did django reinhardt and stephane grappelli have?
    quintette du hot club de france (violin, bass, 3 guitars)
  117. What is the primary function of Big Bands?
    music for dancing
  118. Jazz groups grew larger during the 1920s adding more horns until bands were grouped into 3 main sections:
    saxophones, brass, and rhythm
  119. Horn sections contain:
    2 or more horns
  120. By the mid-late 1940s, the most big bands had relatively standardized horn sections:
    5,4,4 (saxes, trumpets, trombones)
  121. What did the standard horn section consist of?
    • Saxophones: AKA the 'reed section' or woodwind section'. 2 altos, 2 tenors, 1 bari
    • Trumpets: 4-5
    • Trombones (bones): 4-5
  122. What did the swing era rhythm section consist of?
    piano, guitar, string bass, drums
  123. With more musicians in a band, most bands began to rely on?
    written arrangements
  124. Using arrangements, bands could have?
    • more complex musical ideas.
    • Ex. a melody harmonized by the whole band
  125. Because of arrangements, musicians now need to be able to?
    read music
  126. Despite arrangements, what is the primary features/draws in a big band?
    improvised solos
  127. Arrangement example?
    • during the swing era, jazz arranging becomes an art in its own right.
    • sometimes called "charts"
  128. List 5 big band leaders
    • paul whiteman
    • fletcher henderson
    • count basie
    • duke ellington
    • benny goodman
  129. Where does the name "swing" come from?
    the rhythmic swing pattern, used by all significant jazz musicians/bands by the late 1920s
  130. _____ is replaced by focusing on a soloist against the backdrop of a large band
    collective improvisation
  131. Solo improv innovated by _____.
    louis armstrong
  132. b/w 1930-1950 this was the most popular style of music in the us.
  133. The swing era is AKA _____.
    the big band era
  134. The swing era was primarily developed ___.
    in harlem druing the Harlem Renaissance
  135. Name 3 Swing era trumpet soloists
    • Roy Eldridge (Henderson)
    • Cootie Williams (Ellington)
    • Rex Stewart (various)
  136. List 4 swing era sax soloists
    • Coleman Hawkins (tenor)
    • Lester Young (tenor)
    • Johnny Hodges (alto)
    • Benny Carter (alto)
  137. List 2 swing era trombone soloists
    • Jack Teagarden (whiteman, bandleader)
    • Tommy Dorsey (Dorsey Bros Band)
  138. What did the Basie rhythm section establish?
    hard-grooving style and crisp group sound becomes the model for the hard-swinging rhythm section.
  139. Who was part of the Basie Rhythm Section?
    • Walter Page-Walking Bass
    • Jo Jones-solidifies the ride pattern, omits the bass drum
    • Freddie Green-jazz rhythm guitar
  140. What did Artie Shaw play?
  141. Artie shaw followed in the footsteps of?
    Benny Goodman
  142. 1st black jazz band to perform in Carnegie hall?
    Duke Ellington Band
  143. 1st Jazz band to play in Carnegie Hall?
    Benny Goodman Band
  144. Ellingtons 1st jazz suite?
    • black, brown, and beige
    • 1st long, extended piece of music written for jazz
  145. Why did the Swing era decline?
    WWII and 1942-44 Musician's strike
  146. How did WWII affect the swing era?
    • nightclub and cabaret tax
    • rationing of resources (rubber, gas, metals)
    • drafting of musicians/bandleaders
  147. Why do the musician's strike?
    American Federation of Musicians strike against recording industry over royalties to composers.
  148. What doesn't the musician strike affect?
    live, concert, and radio performances
  149. What is the time period for Swing?
  150. What is the time period for Bebop?
  151. What style period is Charlie Parker associated with?
  152. What style period is Dizze Gillespie associated with?
  153. What style period is Thelonious Monk associated with?
  154. What style period is Max Roach associated with?
  155. What Style period is kenny clarke associated with?
  156. Unlike Swing, bebop formed as an ___
    underground movement
  157. Where was bebop formed and by whom?
    formed in jam sessions, by young jazz musicians tired of playing commercial dance music
  158. What is bebop intended for?
    listening, not dancing
  159. _____ were among the first jazz musicians to view themselves as artists rather than entertainers.
    bebop musicians
  160. Musical characteristics of bebop?
    • fast tempos
    • use of extended harmony
    • use of substitute chords
    • focus on improv, little emphasis on arrangement
  161. In bebop, what doe melodies (or heads) act as?
    an introduction/conclusion to a song, and the improvised solos make up the bulk of music
  162. Bebop developed in late-night jazz jam sessions in ____.
    bars and clubs, not dance halls
  163. _____ was the prominent jam session in the late 1930s -early 1940s for talented soloists.
    Minton's Playhouse
  164. What did Minton's playhouse act as?
    a laboratory for developing an experimental type of small group jazz, later named bebop.
  165. Who were the leading bebop musicians?
    • Charlie Parker (alto sax)
    • Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet)
    • Thelonious Monk (piano
    • Kenny Clarke, Max Roach (drums)
    • Oscar Pettiford, Ray Brown (bass)
  166. What instrument did Charlie Parker play?
    alto sax
  167. What instrument did Dizzy Gillespie play?
  168. What instrument did Thelonious Monk play?
  169. What instrument did Kenny Clarke play?
  170. What instrument did Max Roach play?
  171. What is Charlie Parker's nickname and where is he from?
    • "bird"
    • Kansas City
  172. What is kansas city home to?
    the bluesy, riff-style jazz bands
  173. What did Charlie Parker develop?
    a distincitive soloistic style, using complex melodic, harmonic, and rhythm
  174. Who was Charlie Parker heavily influenced by?
    Lester Young
  175. Who was charlie parker's mentor?
    Miles Davis
  176. Who was Dizzy Gellespie influenced by?
    swing era soloist Roy Eldridge
  177. What did Dizzy Gillespie develop?
    a complex solo style while working in Cab Calloway's big band.
  178. Who did Dizzy Gillespie act as a mentor to?
    younger players of all instruments, skilled in teaching the new musical vocabulary
  179. Besides bebop, what was Dizzy Gillespie instrumental in developing?
    Afro-Cuban Jazz
  180. What is Afro-Cuban Jazz?
    Jazz improv combined with traditional Afro-Cuban rhythms
  181. Where was Thelonious Monk raised, who was he influenced by?
    • New York
    • stride pianists
  182. What did thelonious Monk develop?
    a new harmonic language for jazz pianists
  183. Where did Thelonious monk play?
    in the house band at Minton's
  184. What happened to many of Thelonious Monk's innovative compositions?
    they became jazz standards (beyoung the 40s and 50s)
  185. What is Monk's piano style?
    known for dissonant harmonies, angular, melodies, and unusual rhythms
  186. What did Dizzy Gillespie incorporate into bebop big bands?
    afro-cuban elements
  187. Who is Woody Herman?
    Swing bandleader who transformed style with the advent of bebop
  188. What did Woody Herman write?
    four brothers
  189. Why was a new type of drumming required in the bebop era?
    because of the new soloistic styles developed by Parker/Gillespie
  190. Following in the style of Jo Jones from the Count Basie Band, drummers kept time ____
    only on the cymbals
  191. What was the snare/bass drum used?
    primarily to accent phrases with the soloist
  192. Who were the primary innovators of the bebop drumming?
    Kenny Clarke and Max Roach
  193. What is Kenny Clarke credited with?
    inventing the modern swing pattern; while maintaining a swing groove, developing total limb independence to comp a soloist
  194. ___ continued Clarke's style
    Max Roach
  195. What did Max Roach develop?
    the drum as a soloistic instrument, taking longer drum solos
  196. The first major jazz pianist to break away from the stride style?
    Bud Powell
  197. The first significan bass soloist?
    Oscar Pettiford
  198. What did Oscar Pettiford develop?
    solos in the same manner of bebop horn players Parker and Gillespie
  199. Who were the Bebop Bassists?
    • Oscar Pettiford
    • Charles Mingus
    • Ray Brown
  200. Bebop bassists continued with the walking bass, while incorporating ____.
    the new, more complex harmonies in their bass lines
  201. What song was composed by Thelonious Monk?
  202. What song was recorded by Dizzy Gillespie?
    Things to Come
  203. What song was recorded by Charlie Parker?
    Just Friends
  204. What is Dropping Bombs?
    When the drummer uses the kick drum to fill in the spaces for a soloist
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Jazz Test 2
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