1. universal ethical truths exist
  2. there is no universal ethical truths
  3. good is based on the individual
    subjectivism - implies relativism
  4. good is based on society/culture
    conventionalism ( implies relativism)
  5. there is one fundamental good
    absolutism (implies objectivisim)
  6. we cannot know ethical truths
  7. we cannot know ANY ethical truth
    strong skeptic
  8. we cannot konw absolute or objectivism ethical truths
    weak skeptic
  9. there are no ethical truths
  10. there are not any ethical truths
    strong nihilist
  11. there are no absolute objective or subjective ethical truths
    weak nihilist
  12. emotions in some way determine ethics
  13. we should pursue our own power
  14. utility plays some role
  15. we should pursue our own pleasure
  16. truth is what is useful
    pragmatic theory of truth
  17. describing how some part of the world is or was (how the word good is used)
    descriptive theory
  18. proscribing telling you what should be done (how we ought to act)
    proscriptive/normative theory
  19. think about the consequences of the action before acting. act in the way that will have the greatest outcome
  20. relativist, weak moral skeptic, emotivist, protoutilitarian, conventionalist, theory is descriptive, and proscriptive, virtue ethics
  21. Humes argument for moral skepticism HAMS
    • 1. all knowledge is relation of ideas or matter of fact
    • 2.objective moral knowledge is not realtion of ideas
    • 3. objective moral knowledge is not matter of fact
  22. - math, logic
    -world independent (before experiencing world)
    - analytic_true by definition
    -denial leads to a contradiction
    -denial is inconceivable
    relation of ideas
  23. - not logic, but everything else
    - world dependent (after experiencing world)
    - synthetic- beyond meaning of the terms involved
    - denial does not lead to a contradiction
    - denial is conceivable
    matter of fact
  24. what is humes fork
    premise 1 : all knowledge is relation of ideas, or matter of fact: (you cannot really fight this, it is true)
  25. humes support for premise 2
    • R o I is universal (math 2+2=4 worldwide)
    • circumstances matter or morality but not RoI
  26. humes support for premise 3
    • morality excites passions, passions are distinct from reasons
    • -morality guides action
    • -we are not punished for mistakes in reason, but in morality
    • -we do not see morality in action (pushing man)
    • -we consult our feelings and judge based on how we feel.
  27. humes old theory of action
    • reasons determine the action
    • role of reason: reasons direct judgement (determines true/false)
    • reason relates idea to idea
    • -tells you how
  28. humes new theory of action
    • passion determines action
    • - relates idea to ME
  29. humes conventionalist account (positive)
    • good = useful to society
    • bad = detrimental to society
  30. options for dealing with humes HAMS
    • 1. reject P2- you say morality is like math RoI (kant)
    • 2. reject P3- you say morality is like MoF (utilitarianism good = happiness)
    • 3. accept it (relativist- ther is no objective moral knowledge)
  31. - Conventionalist
    - relativist
    -weak nihilist
    -descriptive theory
  32. why isolated cultures
    -b/c they have not been tainted by the rest of the universe, they are pure
  33. Benedicts conventionalist account
    • good = what is normal to a society
    • bad= what is abnormal to a society
  34. process by which norms arise
    • - they do not arise by human nature, survival, or rational
    • -like analogy to phonetics
    • -a dominant bias is pushed further and further until it is accepted and part of the culture's bias
  35. -weak nihilst
    - universal subjectivist
    - egoist
    -descriptive theory,
    -proscriptive theory
    thoery is inductive, strong with good form and bad content
  36. Master Morality (noble morality)
    • -power is good
    • -creative
    • -natural
    • -honest to self-good comes from an internal affirmation
    • -egoist progress society
  37. slave morality (herd morality)
    • -power is bad
    • - uncreative
    • -unnatural- denying instincts
    • -dishonest to self
    • -good comes from external negation
    • -altruists stagnates society
  38. power is good
  39. power is bad
  40. god is dead
    • the death of absolutes/objectivism
    • theres is no truth, only interpretation
  41. role of will to power
    • -natural - life is essentially the will to power, you are affirming life, not only surviving, but flourishing
    • -unnatural- you are denying instincts and therefore life
Card Set
ethics exam 2