Water Distribution

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  1. How many pounds does a gallon of water weigh?
    8.34 lbs/gallon
  2. How many pounds does a cubic foot of water weigh?
    62.4 lbs/cubic foot
  3. How many gallons are in a cubic foot?
    7.48 gallons/cubic foot
  4. What is the formula for the area of a circle?
    A=0.785 D2
  5. What is the area of a triangle?
    A= base x height/2
  6. What is the area of a trapezoid? (a canal is a trapezoid)
    A= (a+b)h/2 or bh/2
  7. What is the circumference (perimeter) of a circle?
    C = 3.14 x D
  8. What is the formula for the volume of a rectangular tank, in cubic feet?
    • V =Length, in feet x Width, in feet x Height, in feet
    • or V =LWH
  9. What is the formula for volume, in cubic feet, of a cylindrical tank or pipeline?
    • V =0.785D2H or V =0.785D2L
    • (H= height of a tank or L=length of pipe, in feet)
  10. What is the formula for the amount of gallons a cylindrical tank or pipeline can contain?
    • V =0.785D2H x 7.48 gal/cubic foot
    • V =0.785D2L x 7.48 gal/cubic foot
  11. What is the quantity formula?
    • Q =AV
    • Q =quantity or cubic feet per second
    • A =area
    • V =velocity usually in feet per second
  12. What is the pound formula?
    Mgd x 8.34 lbs/gallon x ppm = lbs per day/ % available
  13. What does Mgd mean?
    Million gallons per day
  14. What does ppm mean?
    Parts per million (one part in a million parts)
  15. What is another name for ppm?
    Milligram per liter (mg/L), where 1 mg/L = 1 ppm
  16. How do you calculate percentages?
    Percent = part/whole
  17. How can you calculate Mgd when you know cubic feet per second (cfs)?
    Cfs x 0.646 = Mgd
  18. How many ppm are in 1%?
    • 1% = 10,000 ppm
    • or 10,000 mg/L
  19. How much is one billing unit?
    1 CCF or 748 gallons
  20. what is the detention time formula?
    Dt = volume/flow
  21. How many minutes are in a day?
    1440 minutes per day
  22. How many Liters are in a gallon?
    3.785 Liters/gallon
  23. How many milliliters are in a Liter?
    1,000 mL/Liter
  24. How do you convert feet of water column into pressure, in pounds per square inch?
    Feet of water x 0.433 = psi
  25. What is the relationship between chlorine dosage, demand, and residual?
    Dosage = Demand + Residual
  26. How many square feet are in an acre?
    43,560 square feet
  27. How many cubic feet are in an acre-foot?
    43,560 cubic feet
  28. How many gallons of water are in an acre-foot?
    43,560 cubic feet x 7.48 gallons/cubic foot = 325,828.8 gallons
  29. What is the water horsepower formula?
    whp = gpm x ft-head/ 3,960
  30. How do you convert degrees Fahrenheit into Celsius?
    (F + 40) x 5/9 - 40 = C
  31. How do you convert Celsious into Fahrenheit?
    (F + 40) x 9/5 - 40 = F
  32. How do you convert ppm into grains per gallon that's used in water softening?
    ppm/17.1 = gpg
  33. How would you determine a filtration rate, in gallons per minute per square foot?
    gpm/sq.ft. = flow,in gpm/ surface area, sq.ft.
  34. How would you determine the amount of pounds of "active" ingredients per gallon when you know a liquid's active ingrediend percentage?
    percent x weight of water x specific gravity = lbs. active ingredients
  35. What is the relationship between two liquids, when the volumes and concentrations are partially known?
    C1V1 = C2C2
  36. Secondary water quality standards are primarily concerned with
    Aesthetics (taste, color, odor, etc.)
  37. Surge Tanks provide what function in a water distribution system?
    Mitigate the impacts of water hammer
  38. An Elevated Tank is
    Elevated above the pressure zone
  39. The term "MCL" means
    Maximum contaminant level
  40. A clear well provides
    Storage of treated or filtered water from a treatment plant.
  41. Any of the bacteria within the coliform bacterial group can be considered as
    An indicator of pathogenic organisms
  42. A water storage facility is classified as a Standpipe if
    It has a height greater than its diameter.
  43. What term describes water that is suitable for drinking?
  44. what is one of the primary causes of water quality deterioration in a potable water storage reservoir?
    Poor Mixing or Circulation of Reservoir Contents
  45. What is the term for water samples collected at an individual location at a specific time?
    Grab Samples
  46. Bacteria that cause disease and other health impacts to humans are known as
  47. What are the three types of recommended inspections for Potable Water Storage Tanks?
    Routine, Periodic, Comprehensive
  48. A cross-connection is defined as a connection between...
    a potable water system and a non-potable water system.
  49. When referring to pumps and motors, what does the term "wire-to-water efficiency" mean?
    Overall effiency of the motor and pump assembly
  50. Within the same pressure zone as elevation increases pressure in a pipeline will...
  51. Backpressure is caused by?
    Higher pressure in the unapproved water supply than in the domestic system
  52. The most common type of water distribution pump is the
    Centrifugal Pump
  53. The Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) at any point in a destribution system is made up of the following two components:
    Elevation and Pressure Head
  54. An open vertical drop, or empty space, that separates a drinking (potable) water supply to be protected from another water system is referred to as an
    Air gap
  55. The submerged pumping unit in a well, including the shaft, impellers, and housing is called
    The Pump Bowl
  56. Which of the following is a measure of the smoothness of a pipe?
    C Factor
  57. What backflow prevention device has a center relief valve?
    Reduced pressure backflow assembly
  58. What is the rotating element in a pump?
    The Impeller
  59. What causes the Hydraulic Grade Line to slope downward?
    Friction Losses
  60. A reverse flow condition which causes water to flow back into the potable water system from any source other than the intended source is called?
  61. Total Dynamic Head is
    The Total Head added by the pump
  62. The term used to describe the vertical distance, in feet, equivalent to the pressure at a specific point in a hydraulic system is
  63. Which pipe extension method does not require an interruption in water service?
    Wet tap
  64. Water quality in a water distribution system means:
    • Free of Disease and Toxic Chemicals.
    • Attractive in Taste and Appearance.
    • Satisfying to Customers.
  65. Each is a type of water distribution system storage facility:
    • Elevated Tank
    • Standpipe
    • Clear Well
  66. What are the two main objectives of a water distribution system?
    Adequate Flow with High Water Quality.
  67. The terms Grid, Loop, and Tree are
    Types of Water Distribution System Layout Patterns
  68. Disease causing bacteria are known as
  69. What is one of the primary purposes of reservoir storage?
    Equalizing Supply and Demand.
  70. What is the recommended minimum water pressure in a distribution system at any time, including fire flow conditions?
    20 psi
  71. Three typical water distribution system pipe materials
    • Ductile Iron
    • PVC
    • Asbestos Cement
  72. The maximum contaminant level (MCL) for total trihalomethanes is
    80 parts per billion
  73. What is a typical cause of water hammer?
    • Closing a valve too fast
    • Stopping Pumps
    • Closing Fire Hydrants too fast
  74. What fitting is used to create one new branch in a water line?
  75. What does the Total Coliform Rule require in response to a positive sample for Total Coliforms?
    Repeat sampling
  76. Causes of lost water in distribution system pipelines:
    • Flushing
    • Fire Fighting
    • Leaks
  77. Typical reservoir components:
    • Overflow Pipe
    • Inlet/Outlet Pipe
    • Air Vent
  78. Cathodic protection means protection against
  79. On what type of pipe is tuberculation most likely to occur?
    Cast Iron Pipe
  80. By regulation which type of water source of supply requires treatment by filtration prior to delivery to water consumers?
    Surface Water
  81. For best results the flushing velocity for standard flushing programs should be
    2.5 - 3.5 psi
  82. What are the typical potential impacts of a mainline pipe failure?
    • Lost Water
    • Water Contamination
    • Liability
  83. A Positive Bacteriological Sample means:
    Presence of bacteriological contamination
  84. The metal component that loses metal in a corrosion process is called the
  85. What is the typical exterior corrosion protection method for Ductile Iron Pipe?
    Polyethylene Wrap
  86. Sacrificial Anodes must be
    periodically replaced
Card Set
Water Distribution
Water D2, math formulas,etc.
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