1. what is the protrusion of an organ or tissue through the umbilicus?
    umbilical hernia
  2. What is a direct/indirect inguinal hernia?
    • Direct= explodes directly through wall
    • indirect= passes down inguinal canal (scrotal hernia)
  3. What is paracentesis?
    puncture of the peritoneal cavity to remove fluid
  4. Define laparotomy or celiotomy incision
    this is the opening of the abd cavity
  5. What is done with a falciform ligament that obscures the view of the abdomen?
    it is removed
  6. What structures can be visualized through a xiphoid-pubic laparotomy incision w/o manipulation and their locations?
    • cranial= falciform ligament
    • middle= greater omentum =/- tail of spleen
    • caudal= bladder
  7. Where is the spleen located when doing a laparotomy and how does it affect the incision?
    left side or across the midline, tent the skin when opening the abd
  8. What's an incision in to the abd just off the midline?
    paramedian incision
  9. What'd the most imp layer that must be opposed when closing a paramedian midline incision?
    external rectus sheath
  10. What's an abd incision made in the paralumbar fossa?
    paralumbar incision aka flank incision
  11. What type of restraint s used for small animal flank surgery?
    gen anesthesia rather than local
  12. What's a common sequela to peritonitis?
    adhesion b/w sheets of peritoneum
  13. Must the peritoneum be apposed when closing the ventral midline?
    no, best to leave it alone
  14. Define wound dehiscence
    splitting open of a surgical incision (separation of layers)
  15. Why must including the falciform ligament or its fat in the closure of the abd be avoided?
    may delay healing and contribute to wound dehiscence
  16. What's the most imp structure to close in a midline incision?
    linea alba
  17. What's a common cause of diaphragmatic hernias?
    Trauma...cars, fights, kicks, falls
  18. How is a diaphragmatic hernia reached surgically?
    from the abd side
  19. When opening the abd of a dog with a diaphragmatic hernia what must u be prepared to do?
    breath for the dog, as when abd opened there won't be an pneumothorax
  20. Is the peritoneum opposed when closing the abd?
    no, less trauma
  21. How is the stomach axis positioned in a lateral film when there's an enlarged liver?
    exceeds angle parallel to ribs
  22. Why is the cranial pole of the right kidney not visualized in a lateral radiograph?
    in renal impression of liver, the same density
  23. Where is the spleen sen in VD and lateral radiographs?
    • VD: triangular water density caudal to stomach on the left
    • Rt= lateral triangle
  24. What causes a focal loss of detail to the right cranial abd?
  25. What part of the right kidney can't be seen normally?
    cranial pole embedded in liver
  26. Where is the left kidney in relationship to the right?
    1/2 kidney length caudal, slightly ventral
  27. On what does visualization of the renal borders depend?
    amt of perirenal fat present
  28. Are the ureters visible on survey rads?
  29. What structure of the renal pelvis shows up in contrast studies of the kidney that can give clues to problems?
    pelvic diverticula/recesses
  30. What sides of the animal is the pylorus and the fundus?
    • pylorus= right and ventral
    • fundus= left and dorsal
  31. Which is more ventral, the fundus or the pylorus?
  32. On what side of the abd is the cecum?
  33. To what are species differences in the large intestine due?
    modification of the ascending colon
  34. What is the opening of the ileum in to the colon?
    ileocolic opening
  35. What is the course of the transverse colon in all domestic species?
    right to left cranial to root of mesentary
  36. Where is the liver located?
    cranial abd abutting diaphragm, almost completely intrathoracic
  37. The renal impression is in which liver lobe? which side?
    caudate lobe, right
  38. What ligament attaches the liver to the stomach?
    lesser omentum
  39. The common bile duct enters the duodenum at the _____ along with the ____ duct
    major duodenal papillae, pancreatic duct
  40. List the parts of the pancreas and their location
    • right limb: mesoduodenum
    • body: near pylorus
    • left limb: deep leaf, greater omentum
  41. Where is the dorsal end of the spleen located? ventral?
    on left, fixed to greater curvature, variable
  42. what is the elongated area of the spleen where vessels enter?
  43. What arteries pass from the spleen to the fundus of the stomach?
    short gastric aa
  44. What is the expanded proximal end of ureters?
    renal pelvis
  45. What does urine drop from the kidney?
    renal crest
  46. Which species has capsular veins on the outside of its kidneys?
  47. What parts of the renal pelvis surrounds the pseudopapillae?
    pelvic recesses/diverticulae
  48. How do the ureters pass through the bladder wall and why?
    oblique angle to prevent back flow
  49. Where is the trigone of the urinary bladder?
    dorsal internal area b/w the 2 ureteral openings and opening of the urethra
  50. What is a serous membrane?
    a thin, continuous membrane lining a closed cavity of the body, covering its organs
  51. What are standing lateral views using a horizontal beam direction through a standing animal used to detect?
    fluid levels in bowel or abd
  52. On what does peritoneal detail depend?
    serosal fat around organs
  53. What is the term of an abd with an overall gray appearance due to loss of serousal detail?
    "ground glass" appearance
  54. What is the opaque media or gas to dilineate portions of the GI tract called?
    contrast studies
  55. What must always precede contrast studies?
    survey rads
  56. Name one structure than normally is in the left caudal quadrant?
    descending colon
  57. Which sides of the diaphragm can be seen in the rads?
    • cranial surface (contrast with lungs)
    • not the caudal end due to water densities around
  58. Where is the parts of the stomach located in VD and lateral films?
    • Fundus= VD left, lateral and dorsal
    • body= VD, midline (dog) and left (cat)
    • pylorus= DV, right (dog), midline (cat)
    • Lateral= ventral
  59. Where is air likely to be seen in the stomach in a rad taken in right lateral recumbency, right and left views?
    • right= fundus
    • left= pylorus
  60. Where would gas be expected in the stomach in a DV view? VD?
    fundic regio (dorsal up) and VD: pylorus
  61. What is the normal stomachs axis in the lateral projection?
    b/w lines vertical to spine and parallel to ribs
  62. What is the stomach axis used for clinically?
    evaluate the size of the liver
  63. What is the air and contrast material w/in an organ called?
    double contrast studies
  64. How would you precisely locate a radiopaque foreign body to the stomach?
    take 2 radiographs 90degrees to each other
  65. What does full 360 degree gastric dilatation and volvulus look line on a lateral radiograph?
    enlarged gas filled stomach w/ a fold dividing the stomach in to dorsal and ventral compartments
  66. What is the large distended loop of small intestine, named b/c they indicate trouble?
    sentinel loop
  67. What is the shape and location of the cecum in a VD rad?
    "C" corkscrew shape, right side level of L3, seen only if air filled
  68. Is the descending colon seen in VD and lateral survey rads?
    yes, if fecal filled
  69. What structure may be surmised ot be enlarged in lateral rads by ventral displacement of the descending colon?
    medial iliac lymph nodes
  70. Linear foreign bodies in the small intestine ie: string will cause the bowel to ____ ____ on the string due to peristalsis
    bunch up/plicate or accordion pleat, very apparent with contrast study
  71. What should you do if you see a string hanging out of either end of a cat or dog?
    don't pull or may saw through bunched bowel, surgically remove
  72. In normal adults dogs on an expiratory abd rad, liver usually doesnt extend past last ____
  73. List 3 of 4 connecting peritoneum
    mesenteries, omenta, ligaments and folds
  74. What peritoneum connects the liver and the ventral abd wall?
    falciform ligament
  75. How many layers are in the diff classifications of peritoneum?
    • parietal and visceral= 1
    • connecting= 2
  76. What is the peritoneal cavity?
    potential space b/w parietal and visceral peritoneum
  77. What are the 2 layers of the greater omentum?
    superficial and deep leaves
  78. What is the opening in to the omental bursa from the peritoneal cavity?
    epiploic foramen
  79. What is the root of the mesentary?
    attachement of the mesentary to dorsal abd
  80. Name the 3 main unpaired branches of the abd aorta?
    celiac a, cranial and caudal mesenteric aa
  81. What do the celiac, cranial and caudal mesenteric aa supply?
    viscera drained by portal vein
  82. what are the 3 branches of the celiac artery?
    hepatic, splenic and left gastric
  83. How do the jejunal aa terminate to supply the jejunum?
    form arcades and vasa recti to jejunum
  84. What vessels supply the fundus of the stomach?
    short gastric aa from splenic a
  85. How are the ovarian aa located?
    lift up ovary and look in mesoovarium
  86. How are the testicular aa located in the abd?
    passing caudal to kidney to vaginal ring
  87. What vein carries blood from abd viscera to the liver?
    portal v
  88. What are the primary abd organs not drained by the portal v? why?
    kidneys, adrenal glands, gonads, liver; not drained b/c hormones would be destroyed by the liver
  89. Where does the left gonadal vein empty?
    in to left renal v instead of crossing aorta to vena cava
  90. What lymphatic vessel drains the lymph from the cisterna chyli that drains the caudal animal?
    thoracic duct
  91. To which lymph nodes does lymph drain to form the caudal and cranial mammae?
    • caudal= superficial inguinal
    • cranial= axillary
  92. what are the large lymph nodes beneath the termination of the aorta?
    medial iliac lymph nodes
  93. What are the intestinal lymphatic vessels that absorb fat?
  94. What directions do the ventral branches of the spinal nerves travel?
    caudoventral direction
  95. What Where are the collateral ganglia of the sympathetic division located?
    near branches of abd aorta
  96. What gland is part of the sympathetic ANS?
    adrenal glands (medulla)
  97. How do u visualize the kidneys during a laparotomy?
    pull the descending colon and its mesocolon or descending duodenum and its mesoduodenum medially and look in the abd gutter for left and right kidneys
  98. What is inflammation of the kidney?
  99. What structure of the renal pelvis shows up in contrast studies of the kidney that can give clues to problems?
    pelvic recesses
  100. What is the removal of a kidney? what should be checked first?
    nephrectomy; check for another kidney before removal of the 1
  101. What is an incision in to a kidney?
  102. What is inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis?
  103. What is patent urachus?
    persistant urachus from the bladder to umbilicus
  104. What is a clinical sign of a patent urachus?
    dribbling of urine from the umbilicus
  105. What is an abnormal concretion in any part of the urinary system?
    urinary calculi
  106. What is FUS in cats?
    urinary tract disease characterized by dysuria and hematuria w/ or w/o obstruction
  107. What is the creation of a permanent opening for the urethra in the perineum, a common treatment for FUS?
  108. What is an abnormal termination of a ureter some place besides the urinary bladder?
    ectopic ureter, surgically reimplanted obliquely through the bladder wall when corrected
  109. What is the #1 iatrogenic ureteral injury occurring during a spay?
    ligature or clamp mistakenly applied to ureter
  110. What vessels have to be considered when opening the abd?
    cranial and caudal superficial epigastric vessels
  111. What artery is surgically important in operations of the cecum?
    large cecal artery hidden on the dorsal surface
  112. What must not be ligated when removing the spleen?
    Short gastrics and left gastroepiploic aa or artery supplying them
  113. How are vessels ligated during a splenectomy and why?
    close to the hilus, to preserve short gastrics and left gastroepiploic supply to the stomach
  114. Where is the largest artery of the cecum located?
    hidden on dorsal side of the cecum
  115. What aa should surgeons watch for when doing nephrectomies?
    renal aa usually singular but double/triple are possible
  116. What vascular incidence can cause paralysis of the rear limb in cats?
    saddle thrombus in caudal aorta, blocking external iliac aa
  117. What is the landmark for finding the adrenal glands?
    phrenicoabdominal v over ventral surface
  118. What is a portosystemic shunt?
    splanchnic circulation bypasses normal hepatic system and empties in to systemic veins
  119. What is a paracentesis /abd puncture?
    surgical puncture of abd for aspiration of fluid
  120. What emergency twisting of the stomach occurs in large and giant breed dogs with deep chests?
    gastric dilatation/volvulus complex, bloat
  121. What common problem results in projectile vomiting?
    pyloric stenosis/obstruction
  122. What is intussusception?
    telescoping of a segment of the intestine in to lumen of an adjacent segment
  123. What i an incision in to the intestines?
  124. What is inflammation of the cecum?
  125. What is surgical removal of the cecum?
  126. What must be avoided when removing the anal sacs surgically?
    caudal rectal nn and external anal sphinctor
  127. What is eversion of the inner rectum through the anus?
    rectal prolapse
  128. What are the pathological tracts b/w the rectum and the skin surrounding the anus?
    rectocutaneous fistulas
  129. What is the partial removal of the liver?
    partial hepatectomy
  130. How is a liver biopsy taken in dogs?
    laportomy caudal to xiphoid process, finger holds liver in place, biopsy needle through separate stab incision
  131. What is inflammation of the gallbladder?
  132. How is the right limb of the pancreas exposed during exploratory surgery?
    retracts duodenum ventromedially
  133. How is the left lobe of the pancreas exposed surgically?
    retract stomach and spleen cranially and transverse colon caudally
  134. how would you locate adrenal gland during sx?
    phrenicoabdominal v crosses ventrally
  135. What is the removal of 1 or more mammary glands?
  136. When wouldn't a mastectomy be performed on a mammary tumor?
    if distal lung metastisis is already present
  137. What do the following surgical suffixes mean?
    - ectomy
    - ostomy
    - otomy
    • - removal of organ or part by sx
    • -surgically creating an artificial opening b/w 2 hollow organs or b/w a hollow organ and abd wall
    • -surgical incision
    • -fixation
    • -shaping
  138. How are the abd gutters exposed?
    pull descending duodenum and mesoduodenum or colon and mesocolon medially
  139. What is ileus?
    obstruction of the intestines
  140. Can the liver be palpable in the normal dog?
  141. How is the descending colon palpated? When is this easiest?
    on left side...easiest when constipated
  142. Can the kidneys be palpated in the dog? How easy can the cat's kidneys be palpated through the abd wall?
    • In some dogs, right is more difficult
    • Usually left pendulous enough to palpate right may also be palpated
  143. Is the urinary bladder palpable in the dog and the cat?
  144. When can and can't the uterus be palpated?
    • Can't or rarely in nonpregnant pitches
    • pregnant: vesicle palpable ranging at 25-35 days then horns uniformly enlarged: nonpalpable
  145. How is the superficial inguinal ln palpated?
    subcutaneously just craniomedial to thigh
  146. List 7 of the 9 regions of the abd
    xiphoid, rt. and left hypogastric, rt and left flank, umbilical, rt and lt inguinal, pubic
  147. What is the fold of the flank?
    fold of skin from thigh to abd wall
  148. What are the 3 midline regions from cranial to caudal?
    xiphoid, umbilical, prepubic
  149. List the main structures found in the left cranial quadrant
    diaphragm, left liver lobes, fundus and body of stomach, cranial pole of left kidney, spleen, left limb of pancreas
  150. List structures crossing the midline bw the left and right cranial quadrants
    body of stomach, transverse colon, left limb of pancreas, liver, diaphragm
  151. What main structures are located in the right caudal quadrant?
    descending duodenum, cecum, uterine horn and ovary, caudal pole of right kidney, right ductus deferens, right vaginal ring, right ureter
  152. What main structures are located in the right cranial quadrant?
    diaphragm, epiploic foramen, caudal lobe of liver, right lobe and body of pancreas, pylorus and pyloric antrum, descending duodenum, right adrenal, cranial lobe of right kidney
  153. List structures crossing the midline bw left and right caudal quaudrants?
    uterine body, urinary bladder, prostate, terminal branches of aorta, caudal flexure of duodenum, ileum
  154. What main structures are found in the left caudal quadrant?
    descending colon, left ureter, caudal mesenteric a, mesocolon, left uterine horn and ovary, left ductus deferens, left vaginal ring, left ureter
  155. What are the names of the mammae in the bitch?
    Cranial and cadual thoracic, cranial and caudal abdominal and inguinal
  156. What spaces store milk in the mammary gland?
    lactiferous sinus= glands sinus and teat sinus
  157. What passages lead from the teat sinus to the outside?
    teat canal or papillary duct
  158. What are the openings on the nipple/papilla? # in the dog?
    teat orifices, many per nipple
  159. What main vessels supply the mammary glands?
    cranial and caudal superficial epigastric and lateral thoracic aa and vv
  160. List the abd muscles superficial to deep?
    • external abd oblique
    • internal abd oblique
    • transversus abdominis
    • rectus abdominis
  161. What is the caudal free edge of the aponeurosis of EAO extending from the tuber coxae around the iliopsoas m to the prepubic tendon?
    inguinal ligament
  162. What is the rectus sheath?
    aponeuroses of the abd mm around the rectus abdominis m, meet/fuse at the linea alba
  163. What is the musculotendinous partition bw the thorax and abd?
  164. What are the parts of the diaphragm?
    outer: muscular part, inner-dorsal: crura and tendinous center
  165. List the opening through the diaphragm
    aortic, esophageal hiatuses, caval foramen
  166. Name 2 sublumbar muscles
    psoas minor and major and aquadratus lumborum
  167. What are the cranial and caudal boundaries of the abd cavity?
    • cranial - diaphragm
    • caudal- pelvic inlet
  168. What is the term for a part further from the mouth?
    closer to the mouth?
    aborad, orad
  169. can an orad part be further caudally than an aborad part?
    yes, ie: cecum to transverse colon
  170. List the parts of the abd tubular GI tract from orad to aborad
    abdominal, esphagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, rectum, anus
  171. List the parts of the abd GI tract including accessory organs from orad to aborad
    abdominal esophagus, stomach, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, bile duct, pancreas, pancreatic ducts, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, rectum, anus
  172. What peritoneum connects the stomach and duodenum to the liver?
    lesser omentum
  173. What are the attachments of the greater omentum?
    greater curvature and dorsal abdominal wall
  174. Name the longitudinal folds of the stomach mucosa
    gastric rugae
  175. Where is the stomach located?
    cranial behind liver and depending on how full can extend half way b/w the xiphoid and pubis
  176. Name the 3 divisions of the small intestine
    duodenum, jejunum, ileum
  177. What opens in to the descending duodenum?
    common bile duct, pancreatic ducts and stomach
  178. Which part of the small intestine has the longest mesentary?
  179. What connecting peritoneums suspend the duodenum?
    mesoduodenum and duodenocolic ligaments
  180. List the parts of the large intestine
    cecum, colon and rectum, anal canal
  181. What does the ileocecal fold connect?
    ileum and cecum
  182. Name 3 parts of the colon
    ascending, transverse and descending
  183. Upon what does anal continence depend?
    internal and external anal sphincters
  184. What is the end and terminal opening of the GI tract?
    anal canal and anus
  185. What are the reservoirs for secretions opening in to the carnivore's anus?
    anal sacs
  186. Where are the anal sacs in relationship to the anal sphincters?
    b/w internal and external anal sphincters
  187. What is the functional input and exit of the liver?
  188. What ligament of the liver originates from the coronary ligament and extends to the sternal part of the diaphragm?
    falciform ligament
  189. Name the 4 ligaments attaching the liver to the diaphragm
    coronar, right and left triangular and falciform
  190. What structure stores and concentrates bile?
  191. What carries bile to and from the gallbladder?
    cystic duct
  192. What vessel carries nutrient-rick blood fromt he stomach, intestines, pancreas and spleen to the liver? What vessel carries oxygen to liver?
    Portal vein and hepatic artery
  193. What is the structural unit of the liver?
  194. The ______ cells are arranged radially around liver sinusoids
  195. What spaces bathe the hepatic cells?
    liver sinusoids
  196. What small tubules collect bile from the hepatic cells?
    bile canaliculi
  197. Compare the direction of flow in the liver sinusoids and bile caliculi?
    in opposite directions; blood twd caudal vena cava, bile twd porta
  198. What do the liver sinusoids form that join to form the hepatic veins?
    central vv
  199. What functional part of the pancreas does the pancreatic ducts drain?
    exocrine part
  200. Where is the endocrine function of the pancreas carried out?
    islet cells of the pancreas
  201. what is the exocrine function of the pancreas?
    pancreatic enzymes aid in digestion
  202. what do the pancreatic ducts carry to the duodenum?
    pancreatic enzymes
  203. With what 2 abd organs is the spleen closely associated?
    stomach and greater omentum
  204. Of what does the serosa consist?
    layer of mesothelium and ct backing
  205. what erous membrane covers the walls of a cavity?
  206. what is the CT around an organ that's not in a body cavity called? What is it called if it's in a body cavity?
    adventitia, serosa
  207. what do clinicians usually call the visceral serosa on an organ?
  208. What does a fold of peritoneum connect?
    2 visceral layers of peritoneum
  209. Name 2 subdivisions of the peritoneal cavity
    ovarian bursa and omental bursa
  210. is the peritoneal cavity open to the outside of the animaL?
    yes in females via uterine tube, no in males
  211. what is a diverticulum of the peritoneal cavity?
    vaginal cavity
  212. how are the pouches of the peritoneal cavity formed?
    caudal reflections of peritoneum bw organs of pelvis
  213. list the 3 pouches of the peritoneum
    rectogenital, vesicogenetal and pubovesical
  214. what is bw the 2 leaves of the greater omentum?
    omental bursa
  215. what does the lesser omentum connect?
    liver to lesser curvature of stomach and duodenum
  216. Give the location of the epiploic foramen in to the omental bursa
    ventromedial to caudate lobe bw caudal vena cava and portal v
  217. why is the omentum called the policeman of the abd?
    helps wall off infections
  218. what are located in the free edges of the lateral ligaments of the urinary bladder?
    urachus or remnant of the urachus
  219. what connects the spleen and the stomach?
    gastrosplenic ligament (part of greater omentum)
  220. what is the serosa see in the cranial end of a ventral midline incision?
    falciform ligament
  221. What is the functions of the mesentaries?
    suspend organs and path for vessels and nn to organ
  222. name the connecting peritoneum suspending the:
    - ileum
    - rectum
    • -mesoileum
    • -mesorectum
    • -mesocolon
    • -mesojejunum or great mesentary
  223. What does the celiac a supply?
    cranial abd organs
  224. what main arteries send branches to the pancreas?
    branches of celiac and cranial mesenteric aa
  225. what is the blood supply to the intestine?
    cranial and caudal mesenteric aa
  226. what are the numerous vessels to the jejunum?
    jejunal aa from cranial mesenteric a
  227. how does the splenic artery enter the spleen?
    all along it's long hilus
  228. what is the blood supply of the pancreas?
    cranial and caudal pacreaticoduodenal a and pancreatic branches
  229. how is the venal cava formed?
    external and internal iliac vv unite = 2 common iliac vv which unite= caudal vena cava
  230. to where does the lymph from the pelvic limbs, pelvis and abd drain?
    cisterna chyli
  231. what lymphatic ducts drain the abd viscera of lymph?
    visceral lymphatic trunks
  232. what forms cysterna chyli?
    lumbar and viscera lymphatic trunks
  233. where does lymph drain to from the caudal mammae (4 and 5, maybe even 3)?
    superficial inguinal lymph node
  234. where do the cranial 3 pairs of mammary glands mainly drain?
    axillary lymph node
  235. where are the lymph nodes in the root of the mesentery?
    jejunal lymph nodes
  236. what do the medial iliac lymph nodes drain?
    dorsal abd, pelvis and pelvic limb
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