1. Empiricism
    • Sensation
    • Memory and present
  2. Rationalism
    Reason/Mind = Eternal
  3. Dualism
    How the body and soul are separate but work together
  4. Argument
    Consists of evidence that supports the truth of the conclusion
  5. Premises
    Individual statements of the evidence are offered to prove the conclusion
  6. Conclusion
    • Statement of the claim that is being proven
    • Clues: Thus, therefore, hence
  7. Assumptions
    • Unstated but necessary premises of an argument
    • "The witness is reliable"
  8. Inference
    Logical connection between the premises and the conclusion
  9. Logic
    Science of determining good inferences from different arguments
  10. Explanation
    Explanations offer an account as to WHY something happened or HOW
  11. Argument
    An argument is trying to PROVE that something actually happened
  12. Explanans
    Evidence that helps explain WHY (not that) a phenomenon occured
  13. Explanandum
    Phenomenon being explained
  14. Deductive argument
    • one in which the truth of the conclusion necessarily followd the truth of the premises
    • If premises are true than conclusion must be true
  15. Syllogisms
    Argument with 2 premises that necessarily prove the conclusion
  16. Categorical syllogism
    Premises/conclusions are CS (all, no, some)

    All Alaskans are mortal/All UAA students are Alaskans/UAA students are mortal
  17. Hypothetical Syllogism
    If, then statment
  18. Disjunctive Syllogism
    Or statement
  19. Validity
    Refers to the form of an argument and is not related to its truth. Assume premises are true/cant conclude it's false so it must be true
  20. Soundness
    • Deductive argument which when sound is
    • 1) Valid
    • 2) Has true premises
  21. Inductive argument
    One where the truth of the premises probably entails the truth of the conclusion
  22. Cogency
    Strong and valid premises
  23. Appeal to Ignorance
    Lack of evidence or a claim doesn't prove it's opposite
  24. Hasty generalization
    interference made without a lot of examples/evidence
  25. False Cause
    • X then Y
    • X Caused Why
  26. Slippery Slope
    Proposed but unlikely chain of events -> Disaster
  27. Begging the question (Circularity)
    Conclusion is implied in one of it's premises
  28. Complex question
    Presupposes a conclusion

    "So how long have you beaten your wife?"
  29. False Dichotomy
    • Argument that doesn't present relevant alternatives
    • forces false choice between 2 options
  30. Suppressed evidence
    critical information that would disprove conclusion
  31. Equivication
    Argument uses same term with 2 different meanings
  32. Amphiboly
    Misinterpretation of an amiguous statement
  33. Composition
    Confusing attributes of that part(s) of something whole
  34. Division
    • Attributes of whole are confused with parts
    • Football is a violent sport/Football players are violent people
Card Set