1. midsagittal, medial
    vertical plane that passes midway through the body; equal right and left sides
  2. parasagittal
    vertical plane dividing body into unequal left and right sides, on either side of midsagittal
  3. frontal, coronal
    vertical plane that divides body into anterior and posterior parts
  4. horizontal, transverse
    parallel to the ground dividing body into upper and lower halves
  5. anatomical position
    the body is erect, feet together, palms facing forward and thumbs pointing away from the body
  6. longitudinal
    referes to long axis
  7. transverse
    at right angles to long axis
  8. oblique
  9. median
    the midline or center plane (a location)
  10. superior, cephalic
    toward the head or upper part of structure
  11. cranial inferior, caudal
    toward the tail or lower part of structure
  12. medial
    nearer to midline or center plane (a direction)
  13. lateral
    further from the midline or center plane
  14. anterior
    toward or at the front; in front of
  15. posterior
    toward or at the rear; behind
  16. dorsal
    refers to the back; also back of hand and top of foot
  17. ventral
    refers to the front
  18. deep
    further form surface, refers to solid form
  19. superficial
    nearer to surface, refers to solif form
  20. internal
    inside, refers to wall of cavity of a hollw form
  21. external
    outside, refers to wall of cavity of hollow form
  22. proximal
    nearer to root of limb; nearer to axial skeleton
  23. distal
    further form root of limb; farther away from axial skeleton
  24. palmar
    refers to palm-side of hand
  25. plantar
    refers to sole of foot
  26. supine
    forearm and hand, turned palm-side upward
  27. prone
    forearm and hand, turned palm-side downward
  28. invert
    turn inward (as foot and ankle joint)
  29. evert
    turn outward (as foot at ankle joint; also lower lip)
  30. intermediate
    between other structures
  31. ipsilateral
    on the same side of the body
  32. contralateral
    on the opposite sides of the body
  33. four primary tissue types
    • 1. epithelial (stratified squamous epithelium)
    • 2. connective (dense regular, dense irregular, cartilage, dense bone)
    • 3. muscle (smooth, cardiac, skeletal)
    • 4. nervous
  34. dense regular
    • -arranged parallel to each other; smooth; uniformly arranged
    • -located in tendons
    • -provides connection, great tensile strength in one direction
  35. dense irregular
    • -not uniformly arranged
    • -located in the dermis of the skin
    • -resists tension is any direction
  36. hyaline cartilage
    • -dense firm matrix, smooth (packed with collagen)
    • -located in the ends of long bone in joint cavities, costal cartilage of ribs and articular cartilage of freely movable joints
    • -supports and reinforces; resists compression stress
  37. bone (osseous tissue): compact bone
    • -dense solid
    • -located exterior of bone
    • -weight bearing; protects and is where nerves, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels conduct
  38. lamellar
    • -one ring
    • -makes up the rings in an osteon
    • -withstand torsion stress
  39. spongy bone
    • -unorganized, lots of holes
    • -located along the line of stress
    • -helps bone resist stress
  40. bone
    calcified organs composing the skeleton
  41. cartilage
    substance from which bone ossifies; a type of connective tissue
  42. joint, articulation
    junction between bones
  43. head
    enlarged round end of a long bone
  44. neck
    constriction of a bone near its head
  45. body
    broadest or longest mass of a bone
  46. shaft
    body of a long bone, diaphysis
  47. symphysis
    union of complementary right and left halves at the midline
  48. eminence
    low convexity (just perceptible)
  49. protuberance, tubercle
    bump (usually can be felt under finger), larger than an eminence
  50. process
  51. spine
    pointed projection or sharp process
  52. crest
    ridge or border
  53. condyle
    plosihed or rounded articular surface
  54. epicondyle
    elevation above or proximal to a condyle
  55. trochlea
    spool-shaped articular surface
  56. facet
    small articular area
  57. fossa (pl. fossae)
    shallow depression
  58. foramen (pl. foramina)
    hole; perforation
  59. canal
    tubular passage
  60. epiphysis
    ends of long bone
  61. diaphysis
    middle/shaft of long bone
  62. skull-
    frontal-in the front
    protects the brain
  63. skull
    on the side (2 bones)
  64. skull
    situated at sides and base of skull
  65. skull
    -mastoid process of the temporal
    -styloid process of the temporal
    point of muscle attachments
  66. skull
    at the back and lower part of skull
  67. skull
    -occipital condyle(s)
    -foramen magnum (openiong for the spinal cord)
    • -undersurface of bone; articulate with superior facets of atlas vertebra
    • -large hole, transmits medulla oblongata, accessory nerves
  68. skull
    unpaired bone at the base of the skull in front
  69. skull
    -sella turcica (location of pituitary gland)
    holds and protects the pituitary gland
  70. skull
    • one bone
    • moisturizes air with the folds that it has
    • seperates nasal cavity from brain
  71. face
    • -upper jaw bone (keystone bone of facial bone)
    • -fusion of 2 bones, forms boundaries of roof of mouth, floor/lateral wass of nasal antrum, wall of orbit
  72. face
    lower jaw bone
  73. face
    -mandibular condyles
    articulates with mandibular fossa
  74. face
    cheek bone, 2 bones
  75. face
    • -tear bone (helps with drainage)
    • -contributes to medial walls
  76. face
    2 bony parts (roof of the mouth)
  77. face
    bridge of the nose
  78. face
    forms part of nasal septum, connected to ethmoid bone
  79. face
    inferior concha
    • -2 bones (pairs), forms lateral wall of nasal cavity
    • -thin curved bones
  80. ear ossicles
    malleus (hammer)
    • front bone
    • transmits sound vibration
  81. ear ossicles
    incus (anvil)
    • posterior bone (behind malleus)
    • transmits sound vibrations
  82. ear ossicles
    stapes (stirrup)
    • attached to oval windows
    • ring like bone (sets the fluid in motion)
    • transmits sound vibration
  83. other
    • -movable base of tongue
    • -not attached to anything
    • -raises, lowers lynx during swallowing
  84. vertebral column
    cervical (7)
    atlas (top)
    axis (bottom)
    -odontoid process (dens)
    other 5 cervical vertebrae
    -transverse foramen
    • -always has transverse foramen ( the only one of the vertebrae that does)
    • -spinous process is usually a bifid
    • -body is smaller compared with the other
  85. vertebral column
    thoracic (12)
    • -transverse process protude out much more compared with the other
    • -flat articular process for greater range of motion
    • -body medium in size
  86. vertebral column
    lumber (5)
    • -body is largest compared with the other vertebrae
    • -cup shaped articular process (less range of motion)
  87. vertebral column
    • -large triangle shaped bone at the base of spine
    • -5 fused vertrbrae
    • -consist of sacral foramina
  88. vertebrae column
    • -3 fused bones
    • -tailbone
    • -coccyx -> vestigial tail
  89. thoracic
    -manubrium (upper part)
    -body (middle part)
    -xiphoid process (lower part)
    • breastbone, protection; forms anterior section of rib cage
    • -articulates with clavicle and first two ribs
    • -thinner than manubrium
    • -fuses to the body and is non-movable
  90. thoracic
    and false/floating
    • -(first 7) attached directly to the sternum
    • -(next 5 ribs) attached to cartilage that is attched to the sternum
    • -attached only to the vertebrae
  91. upper limb
    -acromion process
    -coracoid process
    -glenoid fossa
    -supraspinous fossa
    -infraspinous fossa
    -spacular spine
    • connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone).
    • -joins with the clavicle to form the acromioclavicular (AC) joint
    • -Together with the acromion, the coracoid process serves to stabilize the glenohumeral (shoulder) joint .
    • -the concavity in the head of the scapula that receives the head of the humerus to form the shoulder joint
    • -above the scapular spine
    • -below the scapular spine
    • -separates the supra- from the infraspinatous fossa.
  92. upper limb
    -sternal end
    -acromial end
    • -acts as a strut for holding upper limb free from trunk for maximum freedom of action; provide attachments for muscles; transmits forces from the upper limb to the axial skeleton.
    • -triangular-shaped medial (sternal) end of the
    • clavicle articulates with the sternum at the sternoclavicular
    • joint
    • -broad lateral (acromial) end of the clavicle articulates with the acromion of the scapula at the acromioclavicular joint.
  93. upper limb
    -deltoid tuberosity
    -intertubercular (bicipital) groove
    -olecranon fossa
    • bone of the arm
    • -prominent, rounded, articulating end of bone
    • -large roughened process
    • -deep depression between two well-marked borders
    • -deep groove
    • -shallow sruface
    • -smooth, rounded eminence
  94. upper limb
    -radial tuberosity
    -interosseous membrane ( between radius and ulna)
    • connects the elbow to the wrist
    • -prominent articulating end of bone
    • -large roughned process
    • -fibrous sheet that connects the radius and the ulna
  95. upper limb
    -olecronon process
    -trochlear notch
    -coronoid process
    • bone in the forearm. It functions as part of the elbow joint.
    • -prominent bony projection
    • -large depression, formed by olecranon and coronoid process, serves as articulation with the trochlea of the humerus.
    • -triangular eminence projecting forward from the upper and front part of the ulna
  96. carpals
    • -link between the distal and proximal carpal rows
    • -a crescent-shaped bone
    • -part of the carpus, a group of eight wrist bones
    • -point of soft tissue attachment on the medial wrist, it acts as a lever
  97. lower limb
    -iliac crest
    -anterior superior iliac spine
    -anterior inferior iliac spine
    -ischial tuberosity
    -pubic symphysis
    • -attachment site for lateral muscles of abdominal wall and back of pelvis,giving form to the interior part of the torso,and protecting its contents
    • -unites with the ilium and the pubis to form hip bone
    • -anterior part of the pelvic ring created by the hip bones
  98. lower limb
    -greater trochanter
    -lesser trochanter
    • -hold the body and provides support to the entire skeletal structure; helps in the movement of our legs.
    • -increase the amount of the torque available by the surrounding muscles
    • -connects to the Fibula and provides movement of the legs
    • -an attachment point for muscles, located to the side of the tibia
  99. tarsals
    medial cuneiform
    lateral cuneiform
    intermediate cuneiform
    • toes
    • (be able to locate them)
Card Set
Anatomy and Physiology