BVM 90-100% at 10-15LPM
- NRB 60-90% at 10-15LPM
- NC 25-30% at 2-6LPM
- - tracheal deviation
- - Asymmetrical movement
- - Neck veins distended
- - Abnormal breath sounds
- - Shock
- - Subcutaneous emphysema
- - chest wall contusion / open wounds
- - Cyanosis, chest pain, SOB
- - open chest wound, air enteres into plural space, squishes lung to collapse, then possible tension pneumothorax
- - Hypoxia
- - shallow breathing
- - guarging wound
- initial=hand on wound
- secondary=3 sided occlusive dressing
- - 3+ ribs broken in 2+ places in succession
- - paridoxical motion
- - SOB
- - guarding
- - pulse up
- - BP up
- Watch out for pulinary contusion / Hemothorax / pneumothorax
- - Lungs popped, air fills plural space and begins to push on other chest cavity organs
- - SOB, fast and shallow
- - Breath sounds diminished
- - JVD
- - tracheal deviation
- - Tacypnea
- - Anxiety
- - Dyspnea
- - Blood fills the plural space
- - anxiety and confusion
- - neck veins flat = hypovolemia
- - breath sounds decreased
- - Shock
- - blood fills the sac around the heart
- -Becks Triad (hypotension, neck veins distended, heart sounds muffled)
- - peridoxical pulse
- - breath sounds equal
- Watch out for hemothorax and pneumothorax
- - blunt chest injury
- - similar to MI and Angina
- Watch for cardiac tamponalde, hemothorax and pneumothorax
AAA and Tramatic Aortic Rupture
- - MVC's and falls from height (90% immidiate death)
- - scene size up and history is extremely important
- (no obvious sign of chest trauma, hypertension in upper extremities
What is shock?
Inadequate perfusion of tissues
What are the 4 causes of shock?
- - pump problem (heart)
- - fluid volume issue
- - air exchange issue
- - Vascular system issue
What are the 2 types of shock?
- Compinsated - Body is trying to fix itself
- Decompinsated - Body gives up
Signs and symptoms of Compinsated shock?
- - thirst
- - diaphoresis (sweaty)
- - Breathing fast
- - fast pulse
- - periferal pulses weakened
Signs and symptoms of decompinsated shock?
- - Altered mental status
- - Acidosis (less O2in body makes it acidic)
- - Leads to cardiac arrest
What can we do for people with shock?
- - take care of bleeding
- - give O2
- - Shock position
- - Rapid transport
- - Cardiac monitor
- - Ongoing exam every 5 minutes
What Are the Vital signs all FF's must know?
- - Pulse
- - BP
- - Respirations
- - Pupils
- - LOC
- - SPO2
- - Skin
- we dont check but we should know:
- - BGL
- - EtCO2
What 7 places can we check the patients pulse?
corodid (neck), breakeal (bicep), radial (wrist), femorial, popliteal, dorsalis pedis, posterior tibialis
What is the normal pulse range for an adult, child and infant?
- Adult - 60-100
- Child - 80-120
- Infant - 120-140
What is EtCO2?
- the amount of Co2 being exhaled
What is the normal range of EtCO2?
How does EtCO2 help you?
- It tell you during CPR if you are:
- - If the EtCO2 reads high, speed up ventilations (hyperventilation)
- - If the EtCO2 reads low, slow down ventilations (hypoventilation)
How many O2 is sticking to the hempglobin in the blood.
What is the range of SPo2 readings?
What are the two substances that will give your SPO2 a false reading?
- carbon monoxide and cyonide
How do you check LOC?
- AVPU - Alert, verbal, pain, unresponsive
- Orientation - Name, time, place, event
- A + O X 3
What is the BP normal range?
100/76 - 140/90
What are you checking on the skin?
Temperature, condition, colour
What does it mean if the pupils are not even or reactive?
- swelling in your head. Possible head trauma.
What is the normal temperature of a human?
- 36.9 or 98.6 degrees
What is a normal BGL?
Name a few Cardiac issues?
- - aortic disection, Cardiac Tamponade, Hypovolemia, Cardiac Contusion,
- - Miocardial Infarction, AAA Abdominal Aortic anuerizm, Angina, Ateriosclerosis,
- Congestive Heart Failure, Stroke, Trans ischemic attack, Sepsis, Pericarditis.
What is an MI?
- - Miocardial Infarction
- - death of tissue surrounding the heart
What are some signs and symptoms of an MI?
- - Pain (clutching of the chest)
- - Reffered Pain (radiating) to the left arm, shoulder jaw.
- - Rapid Breathing, and increased heart rate.
- - irregular Pulse
- - Described like bad indigestion
What two things make you think MI?
- 1. pain or discomfort in the chest/left arm/neck
- 2. SOB
- A temporary blockage around the heart, (fake MI)
- MI is imminant (sooner or later), take to hospital
Blockage around the brain (MI of the brain)
- Temporary blockage around the brain.
- Stroke is imminant (sooner or later), take to hospital
- Conjestive heart failure (Fluid in Lungs)
- - usually smokers with COPD
- - do not lay them down
- - blood infection throughout body
- - look like shit and stink
- Tearing of Aorta due to trauma
- trauma version of Abdominal Aortic anurism
- - good pulse above heart, poor pulse below heart
- - sqeezing of heart due to swelling
- - JVD is apparent
How many compressions:breaths for 1 Rescuer Adult CPR.
How many compressions:breaths for 2 Rescuer Adult CPR.
How many compressions:breaths for 1 Rescuer Child CPR.
How many compressions:breaths for 1 Rescuer Infant CPR.
How many compressions:breaths for 2 Rescuer Child CPR.
How many compressions:breaths for 2 Rescuer Infant CPR.