History ch 4

  1. Thomas Paine
    "Common Sense"
  2. Thomas Gage
    • vertan of Braddock's defeat of Ft. Dusquense
    • commander of all British forces in America
    • Gov of Mass
  3. Edmund Burke
    • delivered speech about conciliating colonies
    • wanted peace with colonies
  4. John Hancock
    • leader of provincial assembly
    • ordered for arrest by Brits
    • 2nd Continental Congress
    • VA
    • merchant
  5. Richard Henry Lee
    • 1st and 2nd Continental COngress
    • VA
    • introduced resolution of VA convention- stating freeof Brit rule
  6. George Washington
    • 2nd Continental Congress
    • commander of continetal army- little experience or money
  7. William Howe
    • vet of french/indian war
    • could have ended war, but didn't act quickly enough
    • allowed American troops to leave
    • replaced by Clinton
  8. Thomas Jefferson
    • 2nd Continental Congress
    • planter from VA
    • published "A Summary View of the Rights of Brit. Amer."
    • committee for independence
    • youngest member of cont. congress
    • drafted Dec. of Independance, blamed George II for everything
    • created concept of revolution byexplaing nad justifying right
  9. John Burgoyne
    • Brit commander
    • supposed to lead large army from candada down champlain to albany, while a smaller force would pusd east toward albany frime Ft. Oswego on lake ontario (howe wast to lead 3rd force up hudson, won Ft. Ticonderoga, took army to Philideplphia)
  10. Horatio Gates
    • had formidable defenses near Saratoga
    • replaced by Greene after putting in untrained minutemen
  11. Francis Marion
    • "swamp fox"
    • led Guerilla bands
    • helped many Tories in S.Carolina and Gerogia turn to Patriot cause
  12. Nathanael Green
    replaced Gates in south
  13. Charles Cornwallis
    • Brit commander
    • rushed to Trenton with reinforcements and won Princeton
    • fought in south, defeated by Morgan, withdrew to Wilmington, NC
    • surrendered at Yorktown
  14. Benedict Arnold
    • commander of small froce to Quebec
    • drove Burgoyne back to Oswego
    • mad b/c of "unjust criticism of generalship"
    • intended to betray west ft (foiled when papers found on Andre)
    • fled to british
  15. Marquis de Lafayette
    • European fighitng for colonists
    • met up with washington and de grassein in yorktown
    • ordered band to play Yankee Doodle
  16. Robert Morris
    • superintendant of finance
    • Philidelphia merchant
    • sut up effective method of getting food and $$ for army
    • persuaded congress to set up N41 bank , and aid military after yorktown
    • obtained foreign loans and got counrty back on track
  17. Noah Webster
    • ardent patriot
    • American dictionary
    • spelling book
    • Webster reader
  18. Mercy Otis Warren
    • American writer and poet
    • James Otis' sister
    • wrote "Histroy of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of American Revolution"
  19. John Carroll
    • 1st American Roman catholic bishop
    • Baltimore
  20. John Trumbell
    • artist
    • Paintings- Declaration of Indepedance, Surrender of Col. Cornwallis at Yorktown, Battle of Bunker Hill
  21. Benjamin Franklin
    • 2nd Cont. Congress- growing to radical position
    • part of committee for suitable justification of independence
  22. Admiral de Grasse
    • commander of French fleet in W. Indies
    • won battle with english fleet ( Graves)
    • won chespeake and cornwallis from sea
  23. Comte de Rochambeau
    • commander of French land forces
    • advised Wash to strike at yorktown (rather than NY)
  24. right of revolution
    • the right to fight if disgruntled
    • right to reject the gov if it doesn't serve its people
  25. nationalism
    pride in country
  26. Declaration of Causes and Necessity of Taking up Arms
    condemning everything Britian's done since 1763
  27. Common Sense
    • Thomas Paine
    • called boldly for complete independence
    • attacked George III and monarchypropoganda
    • everyone in colonies knew and read about it
  28. Lexington and Concord
    • 1st battle
    • minute men
    • colony victory
  29. Shot hear round the world
    first shot of revolution (Lexington)
  30. Second Continental Congress
    • met in Philidelphia
    • no legal authority
    • dealt with military crisis- organized continental army, George Wash commander
    • Declaration of Independence
  31. Battle of Bunker Hill
    1st major battle

    • British set up artilary in Charlsetown. Colonisits seized Breed's Hill (not Bunker. Whoops).
    • Gage fought back- driven down 2 times, 3rd time colonists ran out of ammo
    • Brits won, but colonists should have
  32. Olive Branch Petition
    final plea to King by Cont. Congress
  33. Hessians
    • German mercinary soldiers
    • looting and rape
    • most competent troops at time
    • Wash. attacked them when they weren't ready- some fled, others surrendered.
  34. Loyalists/ Tories
    • loyal to king
    • often attacked by revolutionists
  35. Saratoga
    • Gates v. Burgoyne
    • Burgoyne had heavy losses, Clinton was only hope for Brits, went back to NY for reinforcements, Burgoyne surrendered
    • French aid= reason for victory
  36. Valley Forge, PA
    • after loss of Philidelphia (Brandywine) Wash. army settled in Valley Forge
    • supply system crashed
    • cold winter- built log cabins, short supplies
    • Brits comfy and warm in Philly
    • lost a lot
  37. Peace of Paris
    • 1783
    • ends war officialy
    • America free and independent
    • land east of Miss, below great lakes (except Alabama and Florida)
    • Brit troops had to leave
Card Set
History ch 4
Revolutionary War