1. Nature/ Nurture
    how do genetic inheritance (nature) and experience (the nurture we receive) influence our behavior.
  2. continuity stages
    is development a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages
  3. Stability/Change
    do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age
  4. Cross-SectionalStudies
    • Studydifferentcohortsat the same point in time.
    • – Quick and cost efficient method
    • – Problem: cohort effects . Only allow inferences about age differences
  5. Longitudinal Studies
    • Studythesameresearch participants over several points in time.
    • – Allows inferences about age changes
    • – Problems: drop out and selective survival effects. Confounds age & measurement time
  6. Cohort-SequentialStudies
    combine both longitudinal studies and cross sectional
  7. Foundation of Development
    Genes (Genotype) + Environment (phenotype)
  8. The question of “how much?”
    • – Twin studies & adoptee studies. Problems?
    • – Heritability estimates. Range from 0-1
  9. Thequestionof“how?”
    • – Range of reaction (Different reactions to same environment because of unique genetic makeups)
    • Canalization: tendency of genes to restrict development to a few potential outcomes.
    • – Genetic-environment correlation: Sandra Scarr‟s theory
    • • Passive • Evocative • Active(niche-picking)
  10. How do we come to be who we are?
    From zygote to birth and beyond, development progresses in an orderly, though fragile, sequence
  11. Prenatal developmental stages
    Germinal stage
    Conception - 2 weeks
  12. prenatal stages
    Embryonic stage
    3-8 weeks
  13. prenatal stage
    Fetal stage
    9weeks to birth
  14. Germinal Stage
    • Boy or girl? Gene on Y chromosome triggers male sexual development by switching on the production of male sex hormones.Male triggers gender of child
    • • Conception50:50? Why?
    • • Multiple births: Dizygotic & monozygotic twins
    • • Blastocyst & embryonic disc formed by 4th day. Implantation around 8th day.
    • • Amniotic fluid & Placenta formed. Functions?for protection, and nutrition
  15. Embryonic Stage
    • • Groundwork for all body structures begun.
    • • By 8 wks, embryo 1 in. long, 1/7 th ounce, yet can move spontaneously, responds to touch.
    • • Sensitive period: period of most rapid development & thus most vulnerability
    • • Teratogens: Larger doses, longer exposure, larger variety-----> worse damage any drug disease element that may hurt the embryo
    • • Exact effects of many teratogens hard to pinpoint. Why? Would use correlation studies/ research.
  16. Fetal Stage
    Third month
    externalgenitalswell-formed,& finishing touches appear
  17. Fetal stage
    Second trimester
    All neurons produced. Vernix & Lanugo cover fetus white cream to protect skin
  18. Fetal stage
    3rd trimester
    • Body systems organize & connect
    • – Growth slows, fetus can survive if born now
    • – Fetus responds clearly to sounds & reflexes
    • develop.
    • – A layer of fat develops under skin. Function? protect and cushion for organs and bones
    • – Overall only 30% of all conceptions survive
    • prenatal development
  19. What „tools‟ do we have to help us develop?
  20. • We are active agents in our own development from day 1, ex. reflexes
    • • Neonatal Reflexes (innate automatic responses to stimulation)
    • – Rooting, sucking, grasping, smiling, moro reflex
    • – Many good for survival, protection, learning.
    • – In a healthy neurological system, should not be present after 6 months?
  21. Taste
    can distinguish several tastes. Preference?sweet
  22. Smell
    • reacts strongly to offensive smells. By 8 days shows
    • preference for smell of mom‟s milk use facial expressions
  23. hearing
    • prefers complex sounds & can make fine-grained
    • distinctions , ex. by 4 days, forms preference for local language – attentive to high-pitched, expressive voices
  24. vision
    • prefers complexity (colors, curvilinearity & patterned figures). How can we tell? nearsighted(how long they will pay attention
    • – least mature sense at birth. about 20/600 – sees perfectly at 1 ft. Reaches adult level
    • accuracy by 6-8 mo
    • – visual cliff studies: Depth perception attained when crawl
Card Set
developing through the life span