Bio 9 Chapter 8

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  1. What was the extinction rate 150 K years ago (background rate)?
  2. What is the current extinction rate?
    100-1000X background rate.
  3. How much higher is the rate likely to be in 2100?
    Likely 10,000 X
  4. Why is there likely to be a diversity decrease in the next 50-100 years?
    Because of increasing human population, increasing resource use, and projected climate change.
  5. Define biodiversity hotspot.
    A defined area that has a higher number of species in that region then what would be predicted, and has higher rates than the global average.
  6. True/False: Most species that live in hotspots are specialists.
  7. How can scientists estimate extinction rates?
    By comparing records of the rate at which animals became extinct when humans were around and prior to that, determinng the rates at which DNA copying mistakes occur, observing the effects of habitat reduction, and creating mathematical records.
  8. What are the problems with these methods?
    Their estimates are based on inadequate data and incomplete models.
  9. How do scientists classify species heading toward biological extinction?
    As either endangered or threatened.
  10. What is the difference between an endangered and threatened species?
    A threatened species is only likely of becoming endangered due to dwindling numbers.
  11. What traits do species that are more likely to become endangered have?
    They are either large, slow, tasty, or valuable.
  12. True/False: Certain behavior can make a species prone to extinction.
  13. How many polar bears are there today?
  14. What will their population be like in 2050 and 2100?
    30-35% decline and potentially extinct, respectively.
  15. What is the major reason they are becoming extinct?
    Winter sea ice has a shorter duration.
  16. By when did the passenger pigeo become extinct?
  17. What reasons were they killed for?
    They were good to eat, had good feathers for pillows, good bones for fertilizer, and they were easy to kill, since they nested in large flocks.
  18. Why should I give a fuck about species becoming extinct?
    They provide ecological and economic services, and they have a right to live, damnit!
  19. What instrumental value do these species have to us?
    They are valued for food crops (plants), genetic information, bioprospectors (medicine), ecotourism, and the fact that we wouldn't be able to study what is lost.
  20. What is intrinsic value?
    Existence value, or the right to live.
  21. What anagram is used for the causes of endangerment and premature extinction?
    • Habitat Destruction
    • Invasive Species
    • Population growth
    • Pollution
    • Climate Change
    • Overexploitation
  22. What is secondary extinction?
    An extinction of a species that occurred due to the primary extinction of another species.
  23. What has proven to be the greatest eliminator of species.
  24. What other form of habitat loss leads to extinction.
    Habitat Fragmentation, which leads to edge effects.
  25. True/False: Approximately ~60% of all bird species is decling.
    False. ~70%
  26. What percentage of bird species is threatened with extinction?
  27. Where are species numbers inclining and decling?
    They are incling near humans, and declining in forests.
  28. Where is the greatest decline in bird species?
    In long-distance migrants.
  29. Why are bird species decling?
    Habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, and climate change.
  30. True/False: Birds are environmental indicators.
  31. How are species introductions beneficial?
    They provide food crops, livestock, and pest control.
  32. How many are there globally? In the U.S?
    500,000 alien invader species globally, and 50,000 nonative in the U.S.
  33. Are all invaders beneficial?
    Some definitely are not.
  34. Why was kudzu introduced, and what happened when it was?
    It was introduced to control erosion, and had prolific growth.
  35. What are kudzu's uses?
    It's edible, and a source of tree-free paper.
  36. What disruptions occur from accidentally introduced species?
    There is a downside of global trade and traveling.
  37. What are the characteristics of successful invaders?
    • High Reproductive rate, short generation time
    • Pioneer Species
    • Long Lived
    • High Dispersal Rate
    • High Genetic Variability
  38. What is the Red Queen Hypothesis?
    Because these invader species were constantly having to compete in order to have a place in their native space, when introduced to a new space with no competitors, the species takes off.
  39. What are characteristics of ecosystems vulnerable to invader species?
    • Climate similar to habitat of invader
    • Absence of predators on invading species
    • Early successional systems
    • low diversity of native species
    • Absence of fire
    • Disturbed by human activities
  40. How can we confront nonnative species?
    Identify the characteristics of successful invaders, detect and monitor invasions, inspect imported goods, ban the transfer of invasive species, discharge ballast water at sea, and introducing natural control organism of species, although this can lead to future problems.
  41. What resulted from the use of DDT?
    It accumulated in the food web. In the 1950's - 1960's, fish-eating bird populations dropped, due to their eggshells becoming thin and fragile.
  42. Define bioaccumulation.
    A higher place in the levels of the food chain accumulates more toxins because the levels below are consuming lower levels that have ingested the toxin.
  43. True/False: 90% of all pollination of insect-pollinated plants is by honeybess.
    False. 80%
  44. How much has the honeybee population dropped since the 1980's?
  45. What are the causes of this population drop?
    Pesticides, parasitic mites, and invasive african honeybees.
  46. In 2008, ____ of honeybee colonies were lost, due to ________.
    36%; colony collapse disorder
  47. How many animals and plants die in transit?
  48. What do declining rare population species increase?
    Black market values.
  49. What are the causes for the rising deman of bush meat?
    Due to human population growth, increased road access, and pressure from loggers, miners, and ranchers.
  50. What has occurred from the the increase for demand in bush meat?
    Local and biological extinctions, and the spread of HIV and Ebola virus.
  51. How can we protect wild species?
    • Reducing extinction and protecting biodiversity byz:
    • 1) Establishing and enfore national laws and international treaties.
    • 2) Creating more wildlife sanctuaries.
    • 3) Taking precautionary measures to prevent harm.
  52. Which treaty protects endangered species?
    Convention on International trade of Endangered Species (CITES)
  53. Which treaty provides ecosystem level protection?
    Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
  54. True/False: The U.S. did not sign the CBD treaty.
  55. What organizations protect ocean species?
    The National Marine Fisheries Service
  56. What organization protects other species?
    The U.S. FIsh and Wildlife Service.
  57. What else did the U.S. endangered species act do?
    List endangered species based on biological factors and forbids federal agency projects that jeopardize listed species/habitats.
  58. How many species have been listed as endangered?
    1,318, although this is a gross underestimate.
  59. What percent recovered under active recovery plans?
  60. How are landowners rewarded for saving species?
    By amending to give them economic incentives.
  61. What are the accomplishments of the Endangered Species Act?
    >50% endangered species recovering and develop recovery plans more quickly.
  62. What problems does this act face?
    They can only list species when gravely threatened, need more funding,
  63. What protects marine species?
    ESA and international treaties protect endangered marine reptiles and mammals.
  64. What are the challenges of protecting marine species?
    There is limited knowledge of species, and difficulty monitoring/enforcing treaties due to open oceans.
  65. How many species of sea turtles are threatened?
    6 species.
  66. Why have these species been endangered?
    Loss or degradation of habitat, illegal harvest of eggs, and threats from fishing methods.
  67. What does the International Whaling Commission do?
    It sets quotas.
  68. What problems does the IWC face?
    It is often ignored, and has no enforcement powers.
  69. What countries violate the whaling ban?
    Japan, Norway, and Iceland.
  70. What percent of the National Wildlife Refuge System is made of wetland refuges?
  71. True/False: 30% of listed species in wildlife reserve.
    Fasle. The number is 20%.
  72. What are the problems with wildlife reserves?
    Many refuges are in disrepair, and many allow mining, oil drilling, and off-road vehicles.
  73. How can genetic informaation be stored?
    By gene or seed banks.
  74. How can farms remove pressure?
    Through the commercial of endangered species.
  75. how do zoos and aquariums protect species?
    By collectin species with the long-term goal of returning them into habitat, egg pulling, captive breeding.
  76. How many captive individuals are needed to avoid extinction? To maintain capacity for biological evolution?
    100-500; 10,000.
  77. How has the california condor been saved?
    Last 22 individuals were captured, released a few at a time, and 167 were released into the wild in 2009.
  78. The Precautionary Principle?
    When evidence indicates an activity could harm humans/environment, take precautionary measure to prevent/reduce harm.
Card Set
Bio 9 Chapter 8
Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach
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