1. What is body composition?
    the body’s relative amounts of fat mass and fat-free mass
  2. What are the two catagories of body fat?
    • essential fat
    • adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat)
  3. What is essential fat?
    • crucial for normal body functioning
    • 3-5% total body weight in males
    • 8-12% total body weight in females
  4. What is adipose tissue/subcutaneous fat and visceral/intra-abdominal fat?
    fat cells under the skin and around major organs that stores most fat
  5. What is overweight?
    total body weight above the recommended range for good health
  6. How are the ranges of body weight set?
    population scales
  7. What is obesity?
    a more serious degree of overweight
  8. How is obesity characterized?
    characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat
  9. How does obesity reduce life expectancy?
    by 10-12 years
  10. What are the effects of excess body fat and wellness?
    • Metabolic syndrome, diabetes
    • Body fat distribution and health
    • Performance of Physical Activity
    • Emotional Wellness and Self-Image
  11. What are problems associated with very low levels of body fat?
    Amenorrhea and loss of bone mass
  12. What are low levels of body fat in women and men?
    • women: less than 8-12%
    • men: 3-5%
  13. Whate is an important indicator of health?
    distribution of body fat
  14. What are the two shapes of body fat distribution?
    • apple
    • pear
  15. What is the apple shape of fat distribution?
    fat stored in the abdominal region
  16. What is the pear shape of fat distribution?
    fat stored in the hips, thighs, and buttocks
  17. What are the increased riskes of excessive fat in the abdominal region?
    • diabetes
    • heart disease
    • stroke
    • certain cancers
    • early mortality
  18. What disorders are cause by extreme leanness?
    • reproductive
    • circulatory
    • immune system
  19. What type of disorders have been associated with low percentages of body fat?
    eating disorders
  20. What is body mass index?
    • a measure that can classify risks
    • based on the concept that a person’s weight should be proportional to height
  21. How is body mass index determined?
    body weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters
  22. What is elevated BMI linked to?
    an increased risk of disease especially if associated with a large waist circumference
  23. What are two ways to assess body fat distribution?
    • waise circumference
    • waist-to-hip ratios
  24. What total waiste measurment for men and women increase the risk of disease?
    • 40 inches for men
    • 35 inches for women
  25. What total waist-to-hip measurement for men and women increase the risk of disease?
    • 0.94 for men
    • 0.82 for women
  26. What indirect methods provide an estimate of percent body fat?
    • Underwater weighing
    • Skinfold caliper measurements
    • Bod Pod
    • Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)
    • DEXA (Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry)
    • TOBEC (Total body electrical conductivity)
  27. What should be a part of your regular program in order to make changes in your body composition?
    • Regular physical activity
    • Endurance exercise
    • Strength training
    • Moderate energy intake
Card Set