What does "Biology" mean?
Study of Life
What do we study?
- Plants, Animals, Fungi, Microorganisms
- Relationships, environment
- Heredity, Genetics
What are the steps of Scientific Methodology?
- Formulate a Problem
- Form a Hypothesis
- Plan and Run an Experiment
- Collect Data
- Form a Conclusion/ Publish Results
Of what does a controlled experiment consist?
- Control Group (Doesn't change)
- Experimental Group (Changes)
- Independent Variable
- Dependent Variable
What kind of data is there? How do they describe information?
- Quantative- Numbers
- Qualitive- Words
What is a hypothesis?
A hypothesis is an educated guess.
What is a theory?
A theory describes a well-tested explaination for a range of observations and hypotheses.
What is a law?
A proven explaination that is not prone to change.
Wonders; some answers spark new questions.
Question existing ideas; test other's hypotheses.
Willing to accept different ideas.
Think creatively to design experiments.
What are the 5 characteristics of life?
- Have an orderly structure
- Adjust to environment
- Adapt and evolve
The science of classifying organisms.
Classifying organisms according to their ancestors
Who was Aristotle?
The first scientist to classify organisms
Who was Carl Linneaus?
Created Binomial Nomenclature (two name system)
Of what does a scientific name consist?
In what order do we classify organisms?
How do we classify humans?
- Kingdom: Animalia
- Phylum: Chordata
- Class: Mammalia
- Order: Primate
- Family: Hominidae
- Genus: Homo
- Species: Sapian
a study of the relationships between today's organisms and their ancestors
grouping organisms by ancestors
a group with the same ancestor
a graph or picture used to show a clad
where an organism breaks off in a cladogram
Define "Derived Characteristic"
the study of the interaction of organisms
Define "Environmental Science"
studies how humans affect the ecosystem
Define "Abiotic Factor"
non-living parts of the natural living environment
Define "Biotic Factor"
Factors in the environment that live or once lived
all living things and their habitat
regions of the Earth with similar climate and life forms
all biotic and abiotic factors in a specific area
all living things in an area
all of the members of one species living together
one single living thing
- Self Feeders
- Use the sun to make food
- Photosynthetic or Chemosythetic
Define "Food Chain"
Shows how energy flows from one thing to another
Define "Food Web"
- interconnected food chains
- must start with autotrophs
- must end with decomposters
Average temperature and precipitation
What determines climate?
- Latitude & Longitute
- Near ocean or mountain
- Greenhouse Effect
What is the Greenhouse Effect?
- Light is put onto the Earth
- Light is turned into heat
- Heat is trapped by methane & CO2
- the role an organism plays in an ecosystem
- Postion in food web
What kind of relationships are in an ecosystem?
- Predator > Prey
- Keystone Species
- when organisms live closely together
Define "Ecological Succession"
stages that occur after disruption
Define "Primary Succession"
disruption destroyes everything (IE: Volcanic Eruption)
Define "Pioneer Species"
the first organism that could live on a rock
Define "Secondary Succession"
stage that occurs after disruption and leaves soil
Define "Climax Community"
the mature, stable (no longer changing) community that is the end of succession
What characterizes a biome?
- Types of Plants
- Types of Animals
- Proximity to oceans or mountains
What charicterizes a tropical rainforest?
- Most diverse organisms of all other biomes
- near equator
- lots of precipitation
What characterizes a grassland?
- has grass
- Tropical-: not very old winters; warm
- Temperate-: varying temperatures
- Low rainfall
- Can't support trees
What characterizes a desert?
What characterizes a Temperate Forest?
- deciduous (lose leaves in specific seasons)
- Broad leaves
What characterizes a boreal forest/ taiga?
- evergreen trees
- longer colder winters
What characterizes a Tundra?
- no trees grow
- only grass grows
What factors affect life in an aquatic ecosystem?
- Light: Phonetic (light) and Aphonetic (No light)
- Temperature: some organisms need different temperatures; therefore they need to migrate to different ecosystems
- Nutrients: oxygen, nitrogen, potassium
Of what does a Freshwater Ecosystem consist?
- Wetlands: Bogs, Marshes, and Swamps
Saltwater and Freshwater mix
between high and low