Biology Test

  1. What does "Biology" mean?
    Study of Life
  2. What do we study?
    • Plants, Animals, Fungi, Microorganisms
    • Relationships, environment
    • Heredity, Genetics
    • Evolution
  3. What are the steps of Scientific Methodology?
    • Observation
    • Formulate a Problem
    • Form a Hypothesis
    • Plan and Run an Experiment
    • Collect Data
    • Form a Conclusion/ Publish Results
  4. Of what does a controlled experiment consist?
    • Control Group (Doesn't change)
    • Experimental Group (Changes)
    • Independent Variable
    • Dependent Variable
  5. What kind of data is there? How do they describe information?
    • Quantative- Numbers
    • Qualitive- Words
  6. What is a hypothesis?
    A hypothesis is an educated guess.
  7. What is a theory?
    A theory describes a well-tested explaination for a range of observations and hypotheses.
  8. What is a law?
    A proven explaination that is not prone to change.
  9. Define "Curiosity".
    Wonders; some answers spark new questions.
  10. Define "Skepticism".
    Question existing ideas; test other's hypotheses.
  11. Define "Open-mindedness"
    Willing to accept different ideas.
  12. Define "Creativity".
    Think creatively to design experiments.
  13. What are the 5 characteristics of life?
    • Have an orderly structure
    • Reproduce
    • Change
    • Adjust to environment
    • Adapt and evolve
  14. Define "Taxonomy"
    The science of classifying organisms.
  15. Define "Systematics"
    Classifying organisms according to their ancestors
  16. Who was Aristotle?
    The first scientist to classify organisms
  17. Who was Carl Linneaus?
    Created Binomial Nomenclature (two name system)
  18. Of what does a scientific name consist?
    • Latin
    • Genus+Species
    • Italicized
  19. In what order do we classify organisms?
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  20. How do we classify humans?
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Chordata
    • Class: Mammalia
    • Order: Primate
    • Family: Hominidae
    • Genus: Homo
    • Species: Sapian
  21. Define "Phylogeny"
    a study of the relationships between today's organisms and their ancestors
  22. Define "Cladistics"
    grouping organisms by ancestors
  23. Define "Clad"
    a group with the same ancestor
  24. Define "Cladorgram"
    a graph or picture used to show a clad
  25. Define "Node"
    where an organism breaks off in a cladogram
  26. Define "Derived Characteristic"
    New trait
  27. Define "Ecology"
    the study of the interaction of organisms
  28. Define "Environmental Science"
    studies how humans affect the ecosystem
  29. Define "Abiotic Factor"
    non-living parts of the natural living environment
  30. Define "Biotic Factor"
    Factors in the environment that live or once lived
  31. Define "Biosphere"
    all living things and their habitat
  32. Define "Biome"
    regions of the Earth with similar climate and life forms
  33. Define "Ecosystem"
    all biotic and abiotic factors in a specific area
  34. Define "Community"
    all living things in an area
  35. Define "Population"
    all of the members of one species living together
  36. Define "Organism"
    one single living thing
  37. Define "Autotrophs"
    • Self Feeders
    • Use the sun to make food
    • Photosynthetic or Chemosythetic
  38. Define "Heterotrophs"
    • Herbavores
    • Carnivores
    • Omnivores
    • Decomposers
  39. Define "Food Chain"
    Shows how energy flows from one thing to another
  40. Define "Food Web"
    • interconnected food chains
    • must start with autotrophs
    • must end with decomposters
  41. Define "Climate"
    Average temperature and precipitation
  42. Define "Weather"
    Daily conditions
  43. What determines climate?
    • Latitude & Longitute
    • Winds
    • Near ocean or mountain
    • Greenhouse Effect
  44. What is the Greenhouse Effect?
    • Light is put onto the Earth
    • Light is turned into heat
    • Heat is trapped by methane & CO2
  45. Define "Niche"
    • the role an organism plays in an ecosystem
    • Habitat
    • Tolerance
    • Resources
    • Postion in food web
  46. What kind of relationships are in an ecosystem?
    • Competition
    • Predator > Prey
    • Herbivory
    • Keystone Species
  47. Define "Symbiosis"
    • when organisms live closely together
    • Mutualism
    • Parasitism
    • Commensalism
  48. Define "Ecological Succession"
    stages that occur after disruption
  49. Define "Primary Succession"
    disruption destroyes everything (IE: Volcanic Eruption)
  50. Define "Pioneer Species"
    the first organism that could live on a rock
  51. Define "Secondary Succession"
    stage that occurs after disruption and leaves soil
  52. Define "Climax Community"
    the mature, stable (no longer changing) community that is the end of succession
  53. What characterizes a biome?
    • Climate
    • Types of Plants
    • Types of Animals
    • Lattitude
    • Proximity to oceans or mountains
  54. What charicterizes a tropical rainforest?
    • Warm
    • Most diverse organisms of all other biomes
    • near equator
    • lots of precipitation
  55. What characterizes a grassland?
    • has grass
    • Tropical-: not very old winters; warm
    • Temperate-: varying temperatures
    • Low rainfall
    • Can't support trees
  56. What characterizes a desert?
    • hot & dry
    • cold nights
  57. What characterizes a Temperate Forest?
    • deciduous (lose leaves in specific seasons)
    • Broad leaves
  58. What characterizes a boreal forest/ taiga?
    • evergreen trees
    • conifers
    • longer colder winters
  59. What characterizes a Tundra?
    • no trees grow
    • only grass grows
    • permafrost
  60. What factors affect life in an aquatic ecosystem?
    • Light: Phonetic (light) and Aphonetic (No light)
    • Temperature: some organisms need different temperatures; therefore they need to migrate to different ecosystems
    • Nutrients: oxygen, nitrogen, potassium
  61. Of what does a Freshwater Ecosystem consist?
    • Rivers
    • Streams
    • Lakes
    • Ponds
    • Wetlands: Bogs, Marshes, and Swamps
  62. Define "Estuaries"
    Saltwater and Freshwater mix
  63. Define "Intertidal"
    between high and low
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Biology Test
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