1. Ozone layer
    • O3
    • absorbs ultraviolet energy
    • changes ultraviolet into heat energy
    • no ozone = sun burn = cancer
    • ozone hole is getting smaller
  2. no ozone
    • sun burn
    • cancer
  3. Electromagnet Radiation
    • the only form of energy that can travel through space
    • it travels through space on waves made up of photons
    • all forms travel at the same speed- light speed
  4. photons
    energy packets
  5. Parts of a wave length
    Image Upload 2
  6. Wave height
  7. Number of waves
  8. ROYGBIV- Electromagnetic Spectrum
    Image Upload 4
  9. Shorter Wave Lengths
    • Higher energy
    • higher frequency
  10. Longer Wave Lengths
    • lower energy
    • lower frequency
  11. Radio Waves
    Microwaves, FM, AM
  12. Troposphere
    most clouds/all weather clouds locate here
  13. Stratosphere
    where jet stream is located (W to E: 200 mph)
  14. Mesosphere
    where meteors occur
  15. Thermosphere
    • gamma and x-rays absorbed
    • Aurora occurs
  16. Atmosphere
    Image Upload 6
  17. insolation
    incoming solar radiation
  18. Factors in climate change
    • latitude
    • elevation
    • large bodies of water
  19. Green house gases
    • CO2 and H2O
    • green house effect
  20. Green House Effect
    • 1. Much of the incoming, short wavelength, (visible light) solar radiation penetrates the atmosphere and heats Earth's surface
    • 2. Objects on Earth's surface emit long wavelength (infra red- heat) radiation skyward
    • 3. Greenhouse gases absorb outgoing, long wavelength, radiation and reradiate some of this energy Earthward, thus trapping heat in the lower atmosphere
  21. Fluids
    liquids or gases
  22. Thermosphere (temp)
    hot= absorbs short wavelengths (gamma/xray)
  23. Mechanisms of Heat/Energy (Infrared) Transfer:
    • 1. Electromagnetic Radiation
    • 2. Convection
    • 3. Conduction
  24. Convection
    • occurs in fluids
    • when heated, expansion of matter decreases
    • density of matter increases?
    • contraction increases?
  25. Conduction
    the transfer of heat by direct contact between molecules (occurs in solids)
  26. Solid -> Liquid -> Gas
    Image Upload 8
  27. Relative Humidity
    expressed as a percent compared to the amount of water vapor in the air to how much it could hold at that temperature (capacity)
  28. The change in state from a liquid to a gas is called_______and energy is____________during this process
    • evaporation
    • absorbed
  29. The change of state from a gas to a liquid is called _____________and energy is_____________during this process.
    • condensation
    • released
  30. During what time of day is relative humidity the highest
    5 am (pre dawn)
  31. When is the relative humidity the lowest
    5 PM
  32. Describe the general relationship between temperature and relative humidity
    Temperature goes down and the relative humidity goes up
  33. What term describes the way that air cools as it rises through the lowest layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere?
    Adiabatic cooling
  34. WHat two conditions must be met in order for cloud formation to occur
    • air must reach dew point
    • condensation in the nuclei
  35. Approx. how many cloud droplets must stick together in order to form a single raindrop
    one million droplets
  36. Describe two ways that air can be lifted and coole that might lead to the formation of clouds
    Orographic lifting and frontal wedging
  37. Orographic Lifting
    water condenses and precipitation often occurs on the windward side of these mountains
  38. Frontal Wedging
    air is lifting through the troposphere, as it rises, it will cool and the humidity in the air may (condense ?)
Card Set