1. what is blood?
    a connective tissue composed of a liquid extracellular matrix (plasma) that suspends vaires cells and cell fragments.
  2. What are the 3 main functions of blood?
    • transportation - O2, CO2, wastes, hormones, heat
    • regulation- buffers regulate pH, H2O in blood absorbs heat or cools blood to control body temp
    • protection- blood clots prevent blood loss, white blood cells, blood proteins protect
  3. Is blood more viscous than water?
    Yes, Blood is thicker and denser than water
  4. what is the temp of blood?
    38 (one degree higher than body temp)
  5. what is the pH of blood?
    7.35 - 7.45, slightly alkaline
  6. Is bright red blood oxygenated or deoxygenated?
  7. what does blood consist of?
    • 45% formed elements
    • 55% plasma
  8. what are the formed elements?
    • RBC over 99%
    • WBC and platelets less than 1%
  9. Explain the buffy coat.
    WBC and platelets are less dense than RBC but more dense than plasma and thus forms a buffy coat betweent the other two when seperated.
  10. what is the other term for RBC?
  11. what is the other term for WBC?
  12. what % of total body weight is blood?
    8%. Apprx 5-6 litres Males, 4-5 litres Female
  13. what does plasma consist of?
    • 91.5% water
    • 7% proteins
    • 1.5% other solutes
  14. where are plasma protiens synthesized?
    hepatocyes (liver cells)
  15. Plasma protein - Albumins
    54% of plasma proteins; helps maintain blood osmotic pressure which affects the exchange of fluids across capillary walls.
  16. Plasma protein - Globulins
    38% of Plasma protein; include antibodies (immunoglobulins) which are defensive proteins produced during certain immune responses
  17. Plasma protein - Fibrinogen
    7% Plasma proteins, key protein in blood clot formation
  18. what is the life cycle of a RBC?
    120 days
  19. what are the granular leukocytes?
    • Eosinophil, basophil,
    • neutrophil
  20. what are the agranular leukocytes?
    monocyte, T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte
  21. What are the functions of leukocytes?
    To combat pathogens and other foreign substances that enter the body.
  22. What feature differentiates lymphocytes from the other types of leukocytes?
    • Lymphocytes recirculate between blood, interstitial space, lymph and return to blood. Other leukocytes
    • cannot return to the blood once they leave it.
  23. Describe the 3 types of Lymphocytes
    • T lymphocytes (Tcells) attack viruses, fungi, cancer cells, some bacteria.
    • B lymphocytes (Bcells) destroy bacteria and inactivate their toxins.
    • Natural killer (NK) cells attack wide range of infectious microbes and certain tumour cells.
  24. Describe the process of haematopoiesis
    • Haematopoiesis is the production of formed elements. Liver, spleen, thymus and lymph nodes of foetus form this role then red bone marrow in last 3 months before birth and throughout life. Pluripotent stems cells comprised about 1% of red bone marrow cells. These pluripotent cells become either myeloid or lymphoid stem cells.
    • Myeloid stem cells differentiate into erythrocytes, platelets, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils and monocytes. Lymphoid stem cells differentiate into lymphocytes
  25. Describe the process of erythropoiesis.
    Erythropoiesis is formation of erythrocytes. Myeloid stem cells forms precursor cell proeryhtroblast, ejects nucleus and forms reticulocyte, then erythrocyte.
  26. What is erythroprotien and where is it released?
    Hypoxia of blood flowing through kidney triggers release of erythropoietin which circulates through blood to red bone marrow where it speeds up development of of proerythroblasts into reticulocytes
  27. Discuss the anatomy and composition of erythrocytes.
    Biconcave disc, 8 micrometer diameter, no nucleus, contain haemoglobin molecules, lack mitochondria and generate ATP anaerobically.
  28. What is the function of haemoglobin
    to transport oxygen to tissues and carbon dioxide to lung
  29. How is haemoglobin recycled?
    Erythrocytes phagocytosed and split into haem and globin. Globin broken down to amino acids. Haem broken down to (1) iron which is transported attached to transferrin in the blood and taken back to red bone marrow to be reused in erythropoiesis, and (2) non-iron portion, which is converted to biliverdin and then bilirubin which is transported to liver, enters bile, SI, LI where it is converted to urobilinogen which is excreted in faeces or transported to kidney to form urobilin.
  30. Define haematocrit
    The percentage of the blood volume occupied by erythrocytes. Typically 45%, meaning 45% of the blood is RBC.
  31. where are antigens and anitbodies found?
    • Antigens are found on erythrocytes
    • while antibodies are found in plasma.
  32. What is meant by the +ve or -ve after the letter describing blood type?
    This refers to Rh (Rhesus) type. People with the Rh antigen are termed Rh +ve and those without it are termed Rh –ve.
  33. What are the functions of platelets?
    Formation of platelet plug in haemostasis, release chemicals that promote vascular spasm and blood clotting
  34. Differentiate between the intrinsic and
    extrinsic pathways of haemostasis.
    • Extrinsic- rapid, tissue factor leaks into blood from damaged tissue
    • Intrinsic – slow, activators are within the blood. Endothelial cells become roughed and blood contacts collagen fibres below.
  35. Why is the clotting mechanism described as
    a positive feedback cycle?
    • As thrombin forms it activates more platelets, increasing their release of phospholipds and prothrombinase. Thrombin also increases formation of prothrombinase. Fibrin
    • clot grows.
  36. What is clot retraction and how does it
    assist in blood vessel repair?
    • Clot retraction is the consolidation and tightening of the fibrin clot by platelet contraction. This brings the edges of the damaged blood vessel surfaces closer together so
    • permanent repair can occur.
  37. Embolus
    A blood clot, debris, air bubble transported by the blood stream
  38. Thrombosis
    Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel
  39. Serum
    Plasma minus clotting proteins
  40. Fibrin
    Insoluable protein fibres forming a network that traps formed elements of blood during clotting
  41. Haemostasis
    Haemostasis stops bleeding when blood vessels are injured
  42. Erythropoietin
    erythropoietin speeds up development of proerythroblasts into reticulocytes in response to hypoxia
  43. What antibodies does a person with type O blood have in their plasma?
    A and B
  44. What destroys antigen-antibody complexes?
  45. The process by which formed elements of the blood develop is called:
  46. What plasma proteins plays a role in disease resistance
  47. Considering Rh blood types, what situation could result in maternal antibodies attacking the fetus?
    Mom is Rh negative and fetus is Rh positive
  48. A megakaryoblast will develop into
    a platelet
  49. Name an anticoagulant?
  50. What antigens does a person have on their RBC if their plasma has antibody A?
  51. This hormone causes the development of megakaryoblasts
  52. A negative agglutination result in the blood RhD anti-D panel indicates....?
    RhD -ve group
  53. Anaemia can be due to
    • a decreased haemoglobin concentration and/or
    • a reduced erythrocyte number
  54. erythropoiten
    Hormone that stimulates the production RBCs. Testosterone stimulates the synthesis of this so higher heamocrit in males. Endurance athletes use for doping
  55. Anemia
    significant drop in the hematocrit
  56. polycythemia
    hematocrit high, over 65%, can be caused by dehydration, low O2 levels,use of EPO
  57. hemopoiesis
    blood cell production
  58. red bone marrow
    highly vascular connective tissue,
  59. RBC
    lasck nucleus, mitochondria, cannot reproduce, specialised for O2 transport, generates ATP anaerobically (breaks down glucose) so doesn't use O2 it is transporting.
  60. Describe erythropoiesis
    the production of RBC. Precusor cell is proerythroblast which then divides adn ejects nucleus to become reticulocyte which develops into RBC 2 days after being released from marrow.
  61. hypoxia
    O2 deficiency in cells, triggers kidneys to release more EPO to stimulate mature RBC production
  62. sickle cell anemia
    genetic blood disorder, RBCs are misshapen and stiff, casuing blockages, less surface area for O2 to attach, live 20 days, provides immunity to Malaria
  63. describe an incompatable blood transfusion
    if incompatible, the antibodies in recipient will attack the antigens of donated blood causing agglutination (clumping of RBC). The destroyed RBC release haemoglobin into system adn damage kidneys by clogging filtration membranes.
  64. Eosinophils
    combat histamine
  65. basophils
    release harpin histamine adn seotonin, involved in allergic reactions
  66. neutrophils
    antibiotic activity against bacteria and fungi
  67. Monocytes
    turn into macrophages and clean up debris
  68. Lymphocytes
    • B Cells - differentiate into cells that produce antibodies
    • T cells - attack viruses, transplanted cells, cancers,
  69. Natural Killer Cells
    attack a wide veriety of infectious microbes
  70. WBC life span
    only a few days, some B & T cell live for years,
  71. other name for platelets
  72. why is calcium very important?
    helps cell contraction, cell signalling, the brian to function, extremely important for blood clotting
  73. define thrombosis
    blood clot in undamaged vessel
  74. what is clot retraction?
    the fibrin threads attached to edges of damaged vessel are pulled together when the clot retracts to assist in repair
  75. A haemoglobin concentration of 82 g/L typically indicates
    servere anemia
  76. A negative agglutination result in the blood RhD anti-D panel indicates....
    Rh -ive
  77. In the blood group panel test, type O blood would normally react (agglutinate) to
    none of the serums - O type erythrocytes possess neither antigen
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