1. Heterozygous
    • 2 bands
    • 2 sizes of genes
  2. Homozygous
    • 1 band
    • 1 size of gene
  3. PCR
    Polymerase Chain Reaction
  4. Step One:
    Denaturing (separating) of the two DNA strands by heating to 90-95o C
  5. Step Two:
    Annealing- tube is cooled to 55-65oC because primers cannot bind at high temperatures. Primers bind to DNA strand.
  6. Step Three:
    Elongation- make a complete copy of template. Temperature is raised because Taq polymerase works best at 72oC. Taq polymerase adds nucleotides to primers and eventually makes a copy.
  7. Primers
    Anneal to complementary DNA bases and determine the fragment of DNA that will be copied.
  8. Target DNA
    DNA piece of interest that is copied
  9. Taq Polymerase
    Elongates the DNA strand. Adds nucleotides to primers and eventually makes a copy.
  10. Nucleotides
    form the primer. Complementary base pairing
  11. PCR used for:
    • Forensics
    • Paternity Testing
    • Genetic Disease Diagnosis
  12. Primer Dimer
    white at the bottom of gel
  13. Non-specific Amplification
    more than 2 bands
  14. Causes of no bands:
    • not enough target DNA
    • extraction didnt work
    • forgot ingredients
  15. What could be causing Eric's problem?
    • thyroid gland isnt working
    • pituitary gland has problems
    • testes didnt mature
    • adrenal glands are cancerous
  16. Pituitary Gland
    is an important connection between the brain and the endocrine glands
  17. Benign pituitary tumor
    puts pressure on the pituitary and disrupted its functions
  18. Treatment:
    • Irradiation to kill the pituitary and any tumor associated
    • Cartilage operation on his knee/ metal pins in both hips
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