pharm T3, L1 neoplasm.txt

  1. How many cells are needed for a neoplasm to arise?
    1 = clonal
  2. proper term for malignant cancers?
  3. What is Parenchyma?
    cells that determine the organ or cell produced
  4. What is stroma?
    general coonetive tissue and BV of new growths
  5. desmoplasia
    collagenous stroma
  6. T/F There is stroma in soft, fleshy tumors
  7. Three tumor causes? (HEN)
    • Hemorrhage
    • Edema
    • Neoplasm
  8. Two locations and types of benign tumors that will kill just b/c of their location?
    • Meningioma = brain
    • Myxoma = heart
  9. Adenoma?
    glands including liver and kidney
  10. Cystadenoma?
    cystic mass lined from neoplastic glandular cells
  11. papilloma?
    finger like-projections
  12. Polyp
    growths above skin or mucosal surface, neoplastic or non-neoplastic (inflammation)
  13. Carcinomas (malignant) of basal cells or adnexa (hair, sweat glands)
    Basal cell carcinoma
  14. Carcinoma of duct or columnar cell origin?
  15. What are the two epithelial tumors from placenta?
    • Hydatidiform mole = benign
    • Choriocarcinoma = malignant
  16. What are the two most common germ cell carcinomas, common in testicular tumor?
    • Seminoma (dysgerminoma in females) = estes
    • Embryonal carcinoma
  17. Teratoma origin? benign? Mature
    • Totipotent origin, from all three germ cell layers
    • benign: mature teratoma, cystic variety frome ectoderm
    • malignant: immature teratoma
  18. Myxoma?
    • benign tumor of mesenchyme w/ mucoid appearance
    • ** most common tumor of heats in adults
  19. T/F There are benign hematopoietic neoplasms?
  20. Two hematopoietic neoplasms?
    • Lymphoma
    • Leukemia
  21. Three Nervous system neoplasms
    • Meningioma
    • Neuroma
    • Glioma
  22. Heterotopia? Loctions:
    • Pieces of one mature tissue present w/i another, developmental anomaly
    • Locations: pancreas, gastric tissue (meckel's diverticulum), lingual thyroid, endometriosis, lacrimal gland tissue in conjunctiva
  23. T/F Endometriosis outside of uterine cavity is a developmental anomaly
    F, the only one of the Heterotopias that is not developmental
  24. Choristoma? 4 Locations?
    • def: One or more mature tissues come together to form tumor mass at random site
    • location: conjunctiva, cartilage, Sm mm, lacrimal gl
  25. Hamartoma?
    • -focal malformation of a mixture of tissues that are native to that area
    • -devlopmental
    • -benign neoplasia
  26. Transformation?
    Malignant change in cell
  27. 4 steps for the malignancy of a tumor cell?
    • Transformation
    • Growth
    • Local invasion
    • Distant Metasteses
  28. Differentiation?
    • how close a neoplastic cell resembles comparable normal cells
    • (e.g. benign cells are indistinguishable)
  29. Anaplasia?
    Lack of differentiation, malignant characteristic
  30. dysplasia?
    disordered growth, precancer
  31. What is the largest life-compatible tumor?
    1kg = 10 doublings from 1g
  32. growth fraction?
    • how many cells are proliferating
    • -measure by S-phase
  33. What is the origin of cancer?
  34. tumor progression?
    • more aggressive behavior = more malignant potential
    • ** occurs b/c of multiple mutations
  35. tumor heterogeneity?
    pop. of cells that differ with respect to phenotype
  36. Infiltrate?
    synonym for invasion meaning direct invasion of adjacent tissue or organ
  37. metasteses?
    Tumor implant discontinuous w/ primary tumor
  38. Two malignancies that do not metastasize?
    • glioma = brain
    • basal cell carcinoma = skin
  39. What are the three pathways of metastasis?
    • Seeding
    • Lymphatic
    • Blood borne (hematogenesis)
  40. What is the most important determinant of prognosis for most cancers?
    Stage: how far the tumor has spread
  41. Seeding? examples?
    • Def: breaks through to an open field and spreads onto surfaces of space
    • Ex: ovarian, gastric/pancreatic, intestinal, lung, CNS, urinary tract
  42. Lymphatic spread examples?
    • Carcinoma and some sarcomas
    • Ex: oral (cervical nodes), breast (axillary), lung (perihilar), colon (paracolic)
  43. What procedure is peformed if carcinoma has entered lymph travel?
  44. What is sentinel node biopsy?
    Removal of closest node to cancer = less likely to form lymphedema
  45. Hematogenous examples?
    • ** mostly sarcomas
    • ** usually venous, arterial mainly from lungs
    • Ex.: lungs, liver
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pharm T3, L1 neoplasm.txt
pharm T3, L1 neoplasm