Name and simple define each step of the nursing process
- Assessment-gathering data
- Diagnosis- validating data, determining
- patients strengths and weaknesses.
- Planning- Determining goals and
- Implementation- Putting the plan into action. Evaluation- What
- worked and what didn't. If it did not work, then why didn't it.
How should you form the related to statement
Pt problem + related to + etiology (+ as evidenced by)
Infuse 500 mL over 4 hours. drip factor is 20 gtts/mL. how many gtts/ minute
42 (41.6 rounded to 42)
Infuse 500 mL over 4 hours. what is the rate on the IV pump (mL/hr)
4 principles of pharmacokinetics
Absorption: what is one thing that affects absorption in the enteral route?
What are the two major organs of excretion
Kidneys and Liver
What kind of patient would have problems with metabolism (of drugs)?
metabolism: malnourished patient distribution: elderly and very young
Explain half life. think about pharmacokinetic principle is tied into half life
- Period of time needed for medication in the body to be reduced by 50%.
- A shorter half-life means more doses are needed, however, therapeutic or steady state reached faster
- A longer half-life means drug leaves body more slowly, and takes longer to reach steady state. Loading dose may be needed.
What pharmacokinetic principle is tied into half life?
- Right: Patient
- Look at MAR:
- Before administration
- Right after drug has been prepared
- Right before giving to pt
When should you assess the patient?
Before and after administering the drugs.
What to assess for?
- Therapeutic effect
- Secondary, adverse or idiosyncratic effects
When do you document?
Right AFTER administering the drug
Name the components of a drug order
- Name of PT
- Date and time of prescription
- Name of Drug
- Signature of prescribing provider
Can the nurse write an order?
Yes, but ONLY under specific circumstances (taking a phone order, following a protocol)
How do you prevent med errors?
A physician has ordered peak and trough levels on a drug. when
(generally) should the peak be drawn (peak blood level) and when should
the trough level be drawn?
- PO: Peak, 1-3 hrs after administration
- Trough, before next dose is given, usually 30mns
- Intravenous: Peak, usually 10 mns after administration
- Trough, same as above
a patient taking an oral narctoic for pain relief tells the nurse he/she is constipated. What is this common response to narcotics
a) therapeutic effect.
b) adverse effect.
c) toxic effect.
- d. Side Effect.
- It could become adverse effect if it lasts long or complicates state of pt
A drug is ordered 500 mg. the supply is 0.5 g per tablet. how many tablets?
What factor is used to most accurately calculate drug dosages for a
b) developmental level
d) body surface area
The book says BSA, but Ms. Buchholz said to go with that she said in class, and that is the most used protocol these days.
a nurse is adminstering a liquid medicaiton to an infant. where will
the place the medicaiton to prevent aspiration?
a. between the gum
and the cheek.
b. in front of the teeth and gums.
c. on the front of
d under the tongue
a. Between the gum and the cheek
A nurse is adminstering an IM injection of a viscous medication (which
is what?) using the appropriate gauge needle. what does the nurse need
to know about needle gauges?
a. all needles for parenteral injections
are the same gauge.
b. the gauge will depend on the length of the needle. c. ask the patient what size needle is preferred
.d. gauges range frojm 18 to 30 with 18 being the largest.
D. gauges range frojm 18 to 30 with 18 being the largest.