1. What is Appeal to Ignorance?
    appealing to ignorance as evidence for something. ( We have no evidence that God doesn't exist, therefore, he must exist.) Ignorance about something says nothing about its existence or non-existence.
  2. What is Argument from omniscience?
    (All people believe in something. Everyone knows that.) An arguer would need omniscience to know about everyones beliefs or disbeliefs or about their knowledge. Beware of words like "all", "everyone", "everything", "absolute"
  3. What is the appeal to faith?
    (if you have no faith, you cannot learn.) If the arguer relies on faith as the bases of his argument, then you can gain little from further discussion. Faith, by definition , relies on a belief that does not rest on logic or evidence. Faith depends on irrational thought and produces intransigence.
  4. What is the appeal to tradition?
    (similar to the bandwagon fallacy) just because people practive a tradition, says nothing about its viability.
  5. What is the bandwagon fallacy?
    concluding that an ida has merit simply becasue many people believe it or practive it. (Most people believe in God therefore it must prove true.) Simply becasue many people may beleive somehting says nothing about the fact of that something.
  6. What is the composition fallacy?
    when the conclusion of an argument depends on a n erroneous characteristic from parts of something to the whole or vice versa. (humans have consciousness and human bodies and brains consist of atoms, therefore atomes have consciousness)
  7. what is the confirmation bias?
    Selective thinking that focuses on evidence that supports what believers already believe while ignoring evidence that refutes their beliefs. Confermation bias plays a stronger role when people base their beliefs upon faith, tradition and prejudice.
  8. what is the confusion of correlation and causation fallacy?
    (More men play chess than women, therefore, men make better chess player than women.)
  9. what is excluded middle?
    considering ony the extermes. (you either like it or you dont. Either is guitly or not guitly)
  10. what is loaded question?
    embodies an assumption that if answered indicates an implied agreement. (Have you stopped beating your wife yet?)
  11. what is non sequitur?
    Latin for "It doesnt follow" An inference or conclusion that does not follow from established premises or evidence. (there occured an increase of births during the full moon. Conclusion:full moons causes birth rates to rise)
  12. what is observational selection?
    pointing out favorable circumstances while ignoring the unfavorable. (anyone who goes to Las Vegas gambling casinos will see people winning at the tables and slots.)
  13. what is post hoc, ergo propter hoc?
    LAtin for "It happened after, so it was caused by" Similar to non sequitur, but time dependent. (She got sick after she visited China so something in China caused her sickeness.)
  14. what is proving non-existence?
    when an arguer cannot provide the evidence for his claims, he may challenge his opponent to prove it doesnt exist. (prove God doesnt exist) You cannot prove something that doesnt exist. THe proof of existance must come from those who make the claims.
  15. what is red herring?
    when the arguer diverts the attention by changing the subject.
  16. what is reification fallacy?
    when people treat an abstract belief or hypotheical construct as if it represented a concrete event or physical entity. (IQ test as an acctual measure of intelligence)
  17. what is slippery slope?
    a change in procedure, law, or action, will result in adverse consenquences. (IF we allow doctor assisted suicide, then eventually the governemtn will control how we die). It does not necessarily follow that jsut becasue we make changes that a slippery slope will occur.
  18. what is special pleading?
    the assertion of new or special matter to offset the opposing partys allegations. A presentation of an argument that emphasizes onlya favorable or single aspect of the question at issue. (Horoscopes work, but you have to understand the theory behind it)
  19. what is statistics of small numbers?
    SImply because someone can point toa few favorable numbers says noting about the overall chances. (My parents smoked all their lives and they never got cancer.)
  20. what is straw man?
    creating false scenario and then attackign it. (Evolutionists think that everything come about by random chance) Painting your opponent with false colors only deflects the purpose of the argument
  21. what is two wrongs make a right?
    trying to justify what we did by accusing someone else of doing the same. (how can you judge my actions when you do exactly te same thing?) The guilt of the accuser has no relevance to the discussion.
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