1. What are the 3 parts of the pharynx?
    • Nasopharynx
    • Oropharynx
    • Laryngopharynx
  2. What is the pharyngeal isthmus and where is it located?
    • Joins the nasopharynx & oropharynx
    • Closes during swollowing to prevent food/water going into the nose
  3. How does the nasopharynx open into the nasal cavity?
  4. How are the lateral and posterior walls of the nasopharynx made?
    Mucous membrane lining surrounding the Eustachian tube of 2 muscles: levator veli palatini and tensor veli palatini
  5. What is the cartilagous bulge of the auditory tube?
    Torus tubaris
  6. What is the salpingopharyngeal fold made of?
    Salpingtopharyngeal muscle
  7. What muscle is throught to be the tubal region of the palatopharyngeaus?
    Salpingtopharyngeaus muscle
  8. Where are the tubular and pharyngeal tonsils located? What happens when they are inflammed?
    • Tubular: Adjacent to the opening of the auditory tube. May close auditory tube when swollen
    • Pharyngeal: Mucosa of posterior superior aspect of nasopharynx. When enlarged, called adnoids. Can cause you to be a mouth breather
  9. What seperates the oral cavity from the oropharynx?
    Palatoglossal arch
  10. What muscles depress the soft palate and attach to the lateral side of the posterior aspect of the tongue?
    Palatopharyngeal and palatoglossal muscles
  11. Where are palatine tonsils located?
    Between the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches
  12. What are the 3 mucous membrane folds found at the root of the tongue and where exactly are they located?
    • Median glossoepiglottic fold: 1, between tongue and epiglottic cartilage
    • Lateral glossoepiglottic fold: 2 of them. Between epiglottis and tongue/pharynx junction
  13. What are the epiglottic valleculae?
    • Depressions between epiglottis and junction of tongue/pharynx
    • Also called lateral glossoepiglottic folds
  14. Where is the piriform recess located?
    Each side of laryngopharynx between aryepiglottic membrane and thyroid cartilage/thyrohyoid membrane
  15. Where is the cricopharyngeus located?
    At the infeior constrictor at junction of pharynx and esophagus
  16. What is cricopharyngeus' role?
    • Sphincter. Doesn't allow things down the wrong area
    • Burping.
  17. What is the name of the inner fascia found in the pharynx and where does it attach?
    • Pharyngobasilar fascia
    • Attachment: Skull
  18. Where is the buccopharyngeal fascia attach superiorly?
    Pterygomandibular raphe
  19. What is found between the buccopharyngeal fascia and prevertebral fascia?
    Retropharyngeal space
  20. What is found above the superior constrictor?
    • Auditory tube
    • Levator veli palatini
  21. What is found b/w the superior and middle constrictor?
    • Stylopharyngeus muscle
    • Glossopharyngeal nerve
  22. What is found b/w the middle and inferior constrictor?
    • Superior laryngeal artery
    • Internal laryngeal nerve
  23. What is found b/w the inferior constrictor and the esophagus?
    • Inferior laryngeal vessels
    • Recurrent laryngeal nerve
  24. What 3 muscles are deep to the circular constrictors and run longitudinally?
    • Palatopharyngeuls
    • Salpingtopharyngeus
    • Stylopharyngeus
  25. Where does the palatopharyngeus originate and insert?
    • Origin: Hard/soft palate
    • Insertion: Thyroid cartilage
  26. Where does the stylopharyngeus originate and insert?
    • Origin: Styloid process
    • Insert: Thyroid cartilage
  27. What 4 muscles are associated with the soft palate?
    • Tensor veli palatini
    • Levator veli palatini
    • Palatoglossus
    • Muscularis uvalae
  28. Where does the tensor veli palatini originate from and insert?
    • Origin: Scaphoid fossa on medial pterygoid plate & auditory tube cartilage
    • Insert: Palatine aponeurosis
  29. What occurs when both of the tensor veli palatini are constracted?
    • Tightens soft palate side to side
    • Opens auditory tube in swollowing/yawning
  30. Where does the levator veli palatini originate from and insert?
    • Origin: Petrous portion of temporal bone and torus tubaris
    • Insert: Palatine aponeurosis
  31. What occurs when both levator veli palatini are contracted?
    Lifting the soft palate
  32. Where does the palatoglossus originate and insert?
    • Origin: Palatine aponeurosis
    • Insert: Tongue
  33. What does the palatoglossus do?
    Lift the tongue
  34. Where does the muscularis uvalae originate and insert?
    • Origin: Palatine aponeurosis
    • Insert: Uvula
  35. What does contraction of both muscularis uvalae do?
    Pulls uvula superiorly
  36. How is the pharynx blood supplied?
    • Through the external carotid artery: ascending pharyngeal branch
    • Helping branches: Facial, maxillary and superior thyroid artery
  37. Where do the lymphatics of the neck drain?
    • Retropharyngeal cervical node
    • Deep cervical node
  38. What is the pharyngeal plexus innervation made of?
    • Vagus
    • Glossopharyngeal
    • Sympathetic
  39. What muscles of the pharynx are innervated by CN X?
    All except tensor veli palatini and stylopharyngeus
  40. What innervates the tensor veli palatini?
  41. What innervates the stylopharyngeus?
    CN IX
  42. What does V2 innervate in the pharynx?
    Soft palate and nasopharynx
  43. What does glossopharyngeal nerve innervate?
    • Posterior 1/3 of tongue
    • Lateral aspect of pharynx
  44. How do you test the parasympathetic component of CN IX?
    Observe parotid secretion lateral to upper 2nd molar
Card Set
Med School - Pharynx