What are thiazides?
- - main drug is hydrochiorthizdie
- -drug ends in -zide or -one
- -Commonly used
- -Reduce BP by reduction of blood volume and reduction of arterial blood resistance
- -Adverse effect- hypokalemia
- -SE: dehydration, hyperuricemia, hyperglycemia, orthostatic hypotension
What are loop diurectics?
- -Act on ascending loop of Henle by increasing excretion of Na and Cl. Na and water are lost, but so is K, Ca, and Mg
- -Lasix (Furosemide)
- -SE: loss of fluids/electrolytes, orthostatic hypotension, ototoxicity (hearing impairment, deafness, vertigo)
What is Potassium-Sparing Diuretics?
- -Degree of diuresis induced by the K+ sparing diuretic
- -Same as aldostone receptor blocker
- -Modest hypotensive effects
- -Aldactone (spironolactone)
What are Beta Blockers/B adregic blockers?
- - Reduces cardiac output by diminishing SNS, low HR, contractility and renin release
- -SE: low BP and Pulse, sexual dysfucntion, depression, nightmares, early signs of hypoglycemia
- -DO NOT give with patients who have asthma
- -Corgard (Naldolol), Tenormin (Atenolol), Lopressor (metoprolol, Toprol EL)
What are Centraling Acting Alpha Agonists?
- - Sympatholytics
- -Clondine (Catapres)
- -Acts on brainstem, suppress sympathic outflow to heart and blood vessels
- -Low HR, low contractility, vasodilation,low renin release
- -Side effects: Dry mouth, sedation, dizziness, bradycardia, impotence, servere rebound hypertension
What are Angiotenision II Receptor Blockers?
- -Blocks binding of angiotension II to receptors, which blocks the vasoconstricting and aldosterone secreting effects of angiotension II
- -SE: Insomnia, HA, Dizziness, Muscle cramps, back or leg pain, nasal congestion, angioedema
- -cozaar (Losartan)
What are ACE Inhibitors?
- -Given a lot
- -Angiotension Converting enzyme, this lowers BP. It inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme which inhibits the formation of angiotensin II and release of aldosterone
- -When aldosterone is blocked, Na is excreted along with water, K is retained
- -African American and older adults do not respond to ACE inhibitors unless taken with diuretic
- -Angioedema can lead to asphyxia even if the patient has been on for a long time
- -Lisinopril (Prinivil) (Zestril), Capoten (Captopril)
What are direct vasodilators?
- -Acts by relaxing the smooth muscles of blood vessels, causing vasodilation
- -SE: reflex tachycardia, palpitaitons, restlessness, agitation, nausea, confusion
- -Nitroglycerin (treat angina)
- -Apresoline (Hydralazine hydrochloride)
- -Nipride-Nitropress (nitroprusside soduim)
What are Calcium Channel Blockers?
- -Ca channel blocking agents prevent the movement of extracellular Ca into the cell
- -In angina pectoris, the drug improves the blood supply to the myocardium by dilating coronary arteries and decrease the workload of the heart by dilating peripheral arteries.
- -Cardizem (Diltiazem), Procardia (Nifedipine), Calan, IsoptinSR (verapamil)
- -contraindicated in clients with renal, hepatic dysfunction
- -SE: Flush, HA, dizziness, ankle edema, bradycardia, AV block
What are the different Sympatholytics?
- -Alpha 1: Promotes dilation of A and V
- -Beta 1: Reduces HR and contractility
- -Beta 1: Suppresses release of Renin
- SE: Hypotension, bradycardia, fatigue, dizziness, N/V, erectile dysfunction, edema, Hepatic toxicity
- Alpha/Beta Blockers: Coreg (Carvedilol), Trandate (labetolol hydrochloride)
What are Alpha 1 blockers?
- -Blocks alpha-adrenergic receptors resulting in vasodilation (A&V) and lower BP
- SE: profound orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, faintness, lightheadness, high HR
- -Minipress (prazosin hydrochloride), Cardura (Doxazosin mesylate)