# Math Chp. 2

 Set A set is a collection of objects from a specified universe. A set can be described verbally, by list, or with set-builder notation. Venn Diagram Where the universe is a rectangle and closed loops inside the universe correspond to sets. Elements of a set are assocaited with points within the loop corresponding to that set. Set complement the set of elements in the universal set U that are not elements of A.__A Subset A is a subset of B if, and only if, every element of A is also an element of B AcB Proper Subset A is a proper subset of B when AcB, but there must be some element of B that is not also an element of A. A does not equal B AcB Intersection the set of elements common to both A and B AnB Union the set of all elements that are in A or B AuB Universe consists of the objects allowed into consideration for a set (symbol U) Element an object that belongs to the collection, or set Natural number or Counting number a member of the set (Symbol N) Equal Set when A and B have percisely the same elements (A=B) Empty Set A set that has no elements in it and is written O Disjoint are tow sets that have no elements in common (AUB = O) Counterexample an example which shows that a statement is false. The types of numbers 1. Ordinal Numbers2. Cardinal Numbers3. Nominal Numbers Nominal Numbers or Identification a sequence of digits used as a name or label ex. an id number Ordinal Numbers Descires location in an ordered sequence with the words first, second, third, fourth, and son on, communicating the basic notion of "where" Cardinal Number the number of objects in the set, communicating the basic notion of "how many" ex. there are 9 justices of the U.S supreme court Equivalence of sets When there is a one-to-one corresepondence of the elements of the two sets One-to-One Correspondence each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of another set,and each element of either set belongs to exactly one of their pairs Whole Numbers the cardinal numbers of finite sets, with zero bieng the cardinal number of the empty set. they can be represented and visualized by a varitey of manipulatives and diagrams. Order of the whole numbers M is less than N if a set with M elements is a proper subset of a set with N elements Finite a set that is either the empty set or a set wquivalent to (1,2,3...), for some natural number n Infinite a set that is not finite. One way to think of an infinite set is that, if you were to list all memebers of the set the list would go on forever. Addition of whole numbers a+b + n(AUB), where as a= n(A), b= n(B) Closer property the sum of two whole numbers is a w hole number Commutative Property For all whole numbers a and b, a+b= b+a Associative Property for all whole numbers a,b,c, a+(b+c) = (a+b) +c Zero Properts of addition zero is an additive identity, so a+0 = 0+a=a for all whole numbers a Binary Operation an operation in which tow whole numbers are combined to form antoehr whole number Addition or Sum the total number of a and b combined collection Addends or summands the expression a+b are a and b difference the unique whole number c such that a =b+c minuend in the expression a-b...it is a Subtrahend i the expression a-b it is b Multiplication a repeated addition, so that a*b = b+b...+b where the are a addends factor each whole number a and b of the product a*b Repeated addition Model A way to represent the multiplication operation; where a and b are any two whole numbers, a multiplied by b, written a*b, is defined by a*b = b+b....+b with a addends, when a is not zero and by 0*b Ordered pair the prepersentation of the first component,a, form one set and a second component, b, from anotehr set. It also indicates the Cartesain coordiantes of a point. Cartesian Product (AxB) the set of all ordered pairs whose first component is an element of set A and whose second componenet is an element of set B Dividend a/b; a is the divedent divisor a/b; b is the divisor AuthorAnonymous ID105493 Card SetMath Chp. 2 DescriptionSets and Whole Numbers Updated2011-10-01T00:14:06Z Show Answers