OB Test 1 - chp 5 def

  1. motivation
    the processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal.
  2. hierarchy of needs theory
    • most well-know theory of motivation
    • by Abraham Maslow
    • hypothesis: within every human there exists a hierarchy of needs:
    • 1-physiological
    • 2-safety
    • 3-social
    • 4-esteem
    • 5-self-actualization
    • as each of the needs becomes satisfied the next need becomes dominant
  3. lower order needs
    • physiological and safety
    • needs satisfied externally
  4. higher order needs
    • social, esteem and self-actualization
    • internally satisfied needs
  5. Theory X, Theory Y
    Douglas McGregor proposed 2 views of human beings, theory x is negetive, and theory y is positive
  6. Theory x
    managers beleive that employees inherently dislike work and must therefore be directed or coherced into performing it
  7. theory y
    managers assume that employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play and therefore the avg person can learn to accept and even seek responsibility
  8. two factor theory
    • frederick herzberg
    • an indiviuals relation to work is basic and that one's attitude toward work can very well determine success or failure.
  9. hygiene factors
    • conditions characterized by herzberg surrounding the job:
    • quality of supervision, pay, company policies, physical work conditions, elations with others, and job security
  10. McClellands theory of needs
    • focuses on three needs:
    • need for acheivement
    • need for power
    • need for affiliation
  11. cognitive evaluation theory
    • proposes that the introduction of extrinsic rewards such as pay, for work effort that was previouslly intrinsically rewarding due to the pleasure associated with the content of the work itself tends to decrease overall motivation.
    • a large number of studies support it
  12. goal setting theory
    specific goals produce a higher level of output than does generalized goals of "do your best"
  13. management by objectives
    emphasizes collaboratively set goals that are tamgible, verifiable, and measureable
  14. self-efficacy theory
    • or social cognitive theory
    • refers to an indiviual's belief that she is capable of performaing a task
  15. 4 ways to increase self-efficacy
    • enactive mastery-gaining relevant experience with a task or job
    • vicarious modeling-becoming confident bc you see someone else do the task
    • verbal persuasion-becoming more confident bc someone convinces youu have skills to succeed
    • arousal-more confident bc one is "psyched up" and perfoms better
  16. equity theory
    we compare what we put into our jobs to what we get out of our jobs, this theory proposes that these comparisons can affect motivation.
  17. complexity of equity theory (4 referent comparisons)
    • sef-inside-experience in a dif position within same org
    • self-outside-experience outside the org
    • other-inside-other indiv exp in org
    • other-outside-other individ exp outside org
  18. distributive justice
    employees percieved fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards amoung individuals
  19. organizational justice
    overall perception of what is fair in the work-place
  20. procedural justice
    fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
  21. interactional justice
    individual's perception of the degree to which she is treated with dignity, concern and respect
  22. expectancy theory
    • most widely accepted explanation of motivation
    • victor vroom
    • it states that employees will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when they believe effort will lead to good performance appraisal, appraisal will lead to rewards, rewards will satisfy personal goals
  23. expectancy theory focuses on 3 relationships
    • effort-performance realtionship-probability perceived that effort will lead to perfrmance
    • performance reward relaitonship-degree of belief that performing will lead to rewards
    • rewards personal goals relationship-degree of beleif that goals will be satisfied by reward
Card Set
OB Test 1 - chp 5 def
chp 5 definitions-motivation concepts