What are you assessing when determining a general impression?
Sick or not sick.
AAOx4 stands for
Alert, awake, and oriented to persons, place, time, and event.
List four points to note while performing a scene size up
- Scene safety
- Number of patients
- Need for additional resources
- MOI or NOI
The most important part of doing a medical assessment is to:
Get a good history
What are the four areas checked when a patient has a decreased LOC?
- A: Alert
- V: Verbal
- P: Painful
- U: Unresponsive
What are the six phases of an assessment?
- Scene size up
- Initial assessment
- Focused medical
- Focused trauma
- Detailed assessment
- Ongoing assessment
List the three areas and the high and low score of each.
- Eyes: 1-4
- Verbal: 1-5
- Motor: 1-6
- Total: 3-15
What are two causes of unequal pupils?
- Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA)
Unequal pupils that occur naturally.
What is the pneumonic used in determining a patient's history?
- S: Signs and symptoms
- A: Allergies
- M: Medications
- P: Pertinent past medical history
- L: Last oral intake / last menses
- E: Events leading up to the problem
List six findings to look for when assessing an airway
- If it is obstructed
The primary cause of cyanosis is
List five findings to look for when assessing breathing
List the five vital signs and the normal ranges for each
- Pulse: 60-100 bmp
- Respirations: 12-20 breaths/min
- Skin: Warm, pink, dry
- Pupils: PERRL
- Blood pressure: 120/80
List five findings when assessing circulation
- Central vs peripheral
- Capillary refill
What is the pneumonic that supplements SAMPLE?
- O: Onset
- P: Palliation and provocation
- Q: Quality
- R: Rate
- S: Severity
- T: Time
What are the four senses and two findings of each used in an assessment?
- Sight - Smoke, DCAPBTLS, color, pupils
- Sound: Breath, lung, BP, history
- Touch: Pain, swelling, temperature, texture, deformity, rigidity
- Smell: Drugs, alcohol, fruity breath, GI bleed
List five devices you can use to move a patient
- Stair chair
- Butt bucket
- Scoop stretcher
- Back board
- Slider board
List 8 mechanisms of injury that lead to a high index of suspicion.
- Starred windshields
- Deployed airbags
- Car vs car
- Car vs human
- Fall from 2x height onto solid surface
- Death of another occupant
- Sudden deceleration
- Prolonged extrication
- Greater than 12 inches protrusion into a vehicle compartment
- Bent steering wheel
- Puncture to the core of the body
What is bradycardia? List three causes.
- A slow heart rate.
- Late hypoxia
- Depressant drugs
- Coronary artery disease
What does DCAPBTLS stand for?
- D: Deformity
- C: Contusion (scrape)
- A: Abrasion (bruise) or amputation
- P: Penetration or puncture
- B: Burn
- T: Tenderness
- L: Lacerations
- S: Swelling
What is tachycardia? List three causes?
- High heart rate.
- Coronary Artery Disease
List 4 colors you may see on a patient and two causes of each
- Flushed: Hyperthermia, burns, high blood pressure, allergies, exertion
- Black: Necrosis, death, burns
- Cyanosis: Shock, hypothermia, hypoxia
- Pale: Shock, poor perfusion, hypothermia, burns, hypoxia
- Jaundice (yellow): Hepatitis, alcoholism, gall bladder and liver failure
List five actions to prevent a back injury
- Consider the patient's weight
- Have appropriate number of people lifting
- Lift with the legs
- Keep feet a comfortable distance apart
- Keep back locked
- Don't reach more than 15 inches
- Bend at needs
- Tighten abdominal muscles
- Avoid twisting
- Keep back straight
Decorticate posture is:
- Abnormal flexxion
- Arms rolled in, wrists bent
- Legs twisted inward
List three reasons to do an assessment:
- Scene overview
- Identify life threats
- Identify the problem
- Dictate interventions
- Determine the interventions outcome
Define decerebrate posture
- Abnormal extension
- Wrists pronated
- Legs stiff and straight