1. Plasticity
    Brain's anatomy is constantly changing
  2. Proliferation
    Production of new cells
  3. Chemicals; immunnoglobins & chemokines do what?`
    • Guide neuron migration
    • Deficit: Leads to impaired migration, smaller brain decreased axon growth, and mental retardation
  4. Differentiates
    Formation of axon and dendrites that give neuron it's shape
  5. Myelination
    Glia produce fatty sheaths that speed up transmission in vertebrate axons
  6. Where does myelin first form?
    First forms in the spinal cord, hindbrain, midbrain, then forebrain
  7. Synaptogenesis
    Formation of the synapses
  8. Process of Neuron Growth
    • 1. Proliferation
    • Migrate
    • 2. Differentiates
    • Myelination
    • 3. Synaptogenesis
  9. Paul Weiss
    • Grafted extra leg on salamandar
    • Dismissed idea that each axon finds it's way to the correct muscle
    • They do!
  10. Roger Sperry
    • Cut optic nerve of newt - new synapses form and newt can see perfectly
    • Then cut optic nerve and rotated it 180degrees - axons still form where they're "supposed" to. Newt sees world upside down
  11. Rita Levi-Montalcini
    Discovered that muscles do not determine how many axons form but how many survive
  12. Nerve Growth Factor
    Muscle sends out protein; NGF, that promotes the survival and growth of the axon
  13. Apoptosis
    Programmed cell death
  14. Neurotrophin
    NGF chemical that promotes the survival and activity of neurons
  15. FAS
    Alcohol suppresses the release of glutamate and enhances activity of GABA which leaves neurons with less excitation and thus apoptosize
  16. Closed Head Injury
    • Blow to head that can cause damage but no puncture
    • Rotational forces drive brain tissue against skull
  17. Cerebrovascular Accident - Stroke
    Temporary loss of blood flow to brain area
  18. Ischemia
    • Blood clot/obstruction to to an artery
    • Neurons are deprived of blood and lose oxygen
  19. Hemmorage
    • Ruptured artery
    • Flooded with blood and oxygen
  20. Edema
    • Accumulation of fluid
    • Caused by ischemia or hemmorage
  21. Tissue plasminogen activator tPA
    Drug that breaks up blood clots
  22. Diaschisis
    Decreased activity of surviving neurons after damage to other neurons
  23. Collateral Sprouts
    Newly formed branch from an uninjured axon that attaches to a synapse vacated when another axon is destroyed
  24. Denervation supersensitivty
    Increased sensitivity by a postsynaptic cell after removal of an axon that formerly innervated it
  25. Disuse supersensitivity
    Increased sensitivity by a postsynaptic cell because of decreased input by incoming axons
  26. Deafferented
    When limb has lost it's afferent/sensory input
Card Set
Behavioral Neuroscience