HIS 210

  1. Loyal Nine
    A group of merchants & craftsmen who had teken the lead in opposing the Stamp Act.
  2. Virtual Representation
    The house of commons represented all residents of the British empire, whether or not they could vote for members. Meaning all members represented the entire empire, not just his own district.
  3. Writs of Assistance
    General search warrants that allowed customs officials to search anywhere they chose for smuggled goods.
  4. Sugar Act
    Introduced by prime minister George Grenville in 1764, reduced the existing tax on molasses imported into North America from the French West Indies from six pence to three pence per gallon. The act also established a new machinery to end widespread smuggling by colonial merchants.
  5. Committees of Correspondence
    Committees (meetings) held up by colonial leaders, communicating, and exchanging ideas & information about resistance. (Like the one held in Boston to oppose Sugar & Currency Acts).
  6. Sons of Liberty
    Organizations formed by Samuel Adams, John Hancock, and other radicals in response to the Stamp Act.
  7. Regulators
    Groups of backcountry Carolina settlers who protested colonial policies.
  8. Daughters of Liberty
    Women who spun & wove at home so as not to purchase British goods.
  9. Boston Massacre
    Clash between British soldiers and a Boston mob, March 5, 1770, in which five colonists were killed.
  10. Crispus Attucks
    A sailor of mixed Indian-African-White ancestry. He was remembered as the "first martyr of the American revolution."
  11. Wilkes & Liberty
    John Wilkes, a radical journalist known for scandalous writings about the king and ministry. Wilkes was arrested, tried and aquitted by a London jury. Wilkes became a popular symbol of freedom on both sides of the Atlantic.
  12. Boston Tea Party
    On December 16, 1773, the Sons of Liberty, dressed as Indians, dumped hundred chests of tea into Boston Harbor to protest the Tea Act of 1773, under which the British exported to the colonies millions of pounds of cheap- but still taxed- tea, thereby undercutting the price of smuggle tea & forcing payment of the tea duty.
  13. Quebec Act
    Parliament passed that extended the southern boundary of that Canadian province to the Ohio River and granted legal toleration to the Roman Catholic Church in Canada.
  14. Suffolk Resolves
    A series of resolutions approved by a convention of delegates from Massachusetts towns for the county in which Boston is located, that urged Americans to refuse obedience to the new laws, withhold taxes, and prepare for war.
  15. Committees of Safety
    Authorized by congress to oversee its mandates & to take action against "enemies of American Liberty," including businessmen who tried to profit from the sudden scarcity of goods.
  16. Lord Dunmore's Proclamation
    British governer & military commander in Virginia who issued a proclamation in November 1775, offering freedom to any slave who escaped to his lines & bore arms for the king.
  17. Olive Branch Petition
    Addressed by congress in July 1775 to George III, reaffirming Americans' loyalty to the crown & hoping for a "permanent reconciliation."
  18. Common Sense
    Thomas Paine's influential pamphlet denouncing the idea of hereditary rule & calling for American independence.
  19. Declaration of Independence
    Document adopted on July 4, 1776, that made the break with Britain official; drafted by a committee of the second continental congress, including principle writer Thomas Jefferson. John Hancock was the first person to sign it.
  20. American Exceptionalism
    The belief that the United States has a special mission to serve as a refuge from tyranny, a symbol of freedom, and a model from the rest of the world.
  21. The American Crisis
    An essay written by Thomas Paine, which Washington had read to his troops for inspiration. shortly before crossing the Delaware river to attack the Hessians.
  22. Valley Forge
    Where Washington's army remained encamped during the winter (fighting came to a halt during the winter). The army staying at Valley Forge would suffer from the cold weather.
  23. Benedict Arnold
    Defected & almost succeeded in turning over to the British the important fort at West Point on the Hudson River.
  24. Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty that formally ended the Revolutionary war, represented & signed by (U.S.) Benjamin Franklyn, John Adams, and John Jay (signed in Paris, 1783).
  25. Stamp Act (1765)*
    Parliament required that revenue stamps be affixed to all colonial printed matter, documents, and playing cards; the Stamp Act congress met to formulate a response, and the act was repealed the following year.
  26. Townshend Acts (1767)*
    Parliamentary measures (named for the chancellor of the exchequer) that taxed tea & other commodities, and established a Board of Customs Commisioners and colonial Vice-Admiralty courts.
  27. Green Mountain Boys*
    Small farmers from the Green Mountains that went against intrusions by New York landlords to protect their holdings. The settlers' leader Ethan Allen, and his Green Mountain Boys gained control over the region. This region would later become the state of Vermont.
Card Set
HIS 210
Key Terms CH5; Give Me Liberty! Eric Foner.