1. evaluates the fetus without causing
    it any stress.

    One monitor checks for contractions; the other records the fetal heartbeat.
    nonstress test
  2. reason for doing nonstress test
    Decreased fetal movements

    Going beyond the due date


    High blood pressure
  3. ways to assess fetal well being
    • Amniocentesis
    • Chorionic villi sampling
    • Contraction stress test
    • External fetal monitoring
    • Internal fetal monitoring
  4. Excessive vomiting during pregnancy.

    Physiological and psychological factors may be involved.
    hyperemesis gravidarum
  5. Treatment goals for hyperemesis gravidarum:
    • control vomiting
    • correct dehydration
    • restore electrolyte balance
    • maintain adequate nutrition
  6. Termination of a pregnancy before
    viability and can be spontaneous or induced
  7. miscarriage =
    Spontaneous abortion
  8. Symptoms of spontaneous abortion are:
    abdominal cramping, vaginal bleeding, and feelings of fear and guilt.
  9. _____ is performed to remove products of conception from the uterus
    A D&C (dilatation and curettage)
  10. _____ is ordered for threatened abortions
  11. Occurs when a fertilized ovum implants outside the uterine cavity

    Pain is noted as the tube stretches with the growing embryo, eventually rupturing.

    Rapid surgical treatment is necessary to control bleeding
    ectopic pregnancy
  12. most common site for ectopic pregnancy
    fallopian tubes
  13. Abnormality of placenta–chorionic villi
    become fluid-filled, grapelike clusters.

    Classic signs are bleeding, uterine enlargement, no fetal heart tones, hyperemesis gravidarum, or symptoms of PIH appear before 24 weeks
    hydaditiform mole
  14. hydatidiform mole should be mfollowed for how long to monitor metastasis
    1-2 years
  15. Implantation in lower uterine segment with placenta lying over or very near the internal cervical os.

    Symptoms include painless bleeding in the
    last half of pregnancy.

    Treat to maintain the pregnancy until
    fetus mature enough to survive outside uterus.
    placenta previa
  17. 3 types of placenta previa
    • marginal
    • complete
    • low lying
  18. Premature separation from wall of uterus of a normally implanted placenta.

    Symptoms include a rigid, painful abdomen.

    Irreversible brain damage or fetal death may occur if hypoxia is not reversed quickly.
    abruptio placenta
  19. Overstimulation of normal clotting process, occurs as complication of a primary problem that can cause fetal death.
  20. symptoms of dissiminated intravascular coagulation
    dyspnea, chest pain, restlessness, cyanosis, and spitting frothy, blood-tinged mucous.
  21. steps for DIC
    correct problem

    deliver fetus

    IV administration of blood,fibrinogen, or cryoprecipitate is begun.

    Heparin is given continuously

    Oxygen therapy is begun
  22. disorder most common in pregnancy, after 20 weeks’ gestation
  23. cure for PIH
    deliver baby
  24. Mild preeclampsia–blood pressure increases ____ mm Hg systolic or ____ mm Hg diastolic over baseline on two occasions at least 6 hours apart
    • S: 30
    • D: 15
  25. PIH:

    ______ is usually the last of the three classic symptoms to appear
  26. PIH common findings:

    ______ noted in face and hands.

    Objectively defined as weight gain of _________.

    Urine may show __________
    Edema noted in face and hands.

    • Objectively defined as weight gain of
    • more than 1 pound a week.

    Urine may show 1+ or 2+ albumin
  27. Severe preeclampsia:

    blood pressure increases to _____

    Generalized edema in _______

    Weight gain may be _______.

    Urinary albumin may be _______
    Severe preeclampsia–blood pressure increases to 160/110 or higher.

    Generalized edema in face, hands, sacral area, lower extremities, abdomen.

    Weight gain may be 2 pounds a week.

    Urinary albumin may be 3+ or 4+.
  28. last symptom of severe preeclampsia before client moves into eclampsia
    epigastric pain
  29. eclampsia is characterized by ______

    and convulsions are treated with _______
    grand mal seizures

    magnesium sulfate
  30. when is mag sulfate administrated:
    Respirations; at least 14/minute.

    Urine output: must be at least 30 cc/hr
  31. antidote for mag
    calcium gluconate
  32. complications of gestational DM
    Macrosomia: excessive fetal growth (big baby)
  33. used as a prophylaxis for all pregnant women with heart disease
  34. PKU phenylalanine level for positive pregnancy outcome

    ***Client to maintain phenylalanine-free diet
    less than 2.0 mg/dL while pregnant
  35. inherited disease that can be controlled by diet

    No cure. Damage done is irreversible so
    early detection is crucial.
  36. PKU progressive conditions:
    mental retardation

  37. group of infections that f untreated can cause abortion, congenitalanomalies, fetal infections, IUGR, preterm labor, mental retardation, or death.

    Toxoplasmosis (TO)

    Rubella (R)

    Cytomegalovirus (C)

    Herpes genitalis (H)
  38. fetus may contract toxoplasmosis if mother becomes contaminated or infected by
    cat litter and contaminated meat
  39. chracteristic of cytomegalovirus
    "blueberry muffin" lesions
  40. Women with active genital herpes at time of delivery will need _______to prevent transmission of virus to infant
  41. if infant has blisters on body _____ should be suspected
    herpes becuase it may not be apparent on women
  42. _____ is a challenge for pregnant HIV-infected client.
    weight gain
  43. how can HIV be transmitted to fetus:
    • through placenta
    • during birth
    • during breast feeding.
  44. hemolytic disease for Rh incompatibility–can only happen when:
    mother is Rh negative and fetus is Rh positive.
  45. if mother is Rh negative and fetus is Rh positive what should be administered
  46. multiple pregnancies pose greater risk for:
    fetal anomalies, abnormalpresentations, and preterm birth.
  47. when does preterm labor begin
    begins after viability but before 38 weeks’ gestation.
  48. The process of stopping labor with medications is called
Card Set
OB 51