Alfred Russell Wallace
- "Father of Biogeology"
- Develops theory of natural selection independent of Darwin; receives little credit.
- "convergent evolution"
Thomas Henry Huxley
- "Darwin's Bulldog"
- Feisty orator spoke on Darwin's behalf.
- "Father of Modern Genetics"
- Augustinian monk accomplished in mathematics and sciences.
- Developed 2 laws in Biology:
- 1) Law of Segregation
- 2)Law of Independent Assortment
- Previously, people believed in "blending" process to inherit physical traits.
- "Survival of the fittest"
- Proponent of Social Darwinism (applies evolution to human societies and cultures.)
- Ladder of societies: barbarians>savages>civilized folk
- "ontogeny recapitulates phylology" - individual development repeats ancestral development
- Social Darwinist and racist
- "The Jewish Question"
- Founder of Eugenics Movement
- Statistician, sought to quantify heritable human traits from height to intelligence.
- Implemented sterilization policies.
4 steps of Natural Selection
- 1) Overpopulation
- 2) Inherited genetic variation within the population.
- 3) Individuals with the genes or adaptations most suitable to their environment should survive and reproduce.
- 4) Offspring of individuals that reproduced physically resemble their parents.
- Studied geologic strata
- Rediscovered and confirmed Hutton's estimate of Earth's very old age, uniformitarianism
- Influenced Darwin:
- the earth is ancient and ever-changing.
- Founded modern geology with:
- theory of the earth's formation
- Idea of uniformitarianism
- Studied fossils extensively.
- Revealed much variation in the fossil record.
- Pioneered taxonomy based on physical appearance.
- Created first scientific classification of plants and animals.
- Wrote Systems of NaturePresented the binomial nomenclature taxonomy of plants and animals.
- Founded demography - only some will find enough food to survive.
- Provided concept of characteristics advantageous for survival.
Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck
- Lamarckism - Posited characteristics acquired via inheritance.
- Provided first serious model of physical traits' passing from parents to offspring.
- The study of humankind.
- 4 branches: