ch 7,8,9

  1. nucleus
    positevely charged center of an atom
  2. Atoms are____ and composed of____ __ ________.
    the smallest unit of matter /nucleus and electron
  3. antioxidants are chemicals that
    protect cells from damage from oxidation including the following vitamins: e,c,a, beta caratine, and selenium
  4. sources of pottasium:
    potato, yogurt, tomato juice, halibut, orange juice, canteloupe, spinach, etc
  5. not enough vitamin c can cause
    scurvy( most common vitamin deficient disease) >bleeding gums, loss of teeth, weakness
  6. functions of potassium
    • -fluid and electolyte balance
    • -muscle contractions and transmission of nerve impulses
    • -helps maintain lower blood pressure
  7. functions of fluids
    • fluids dissolve and transport substances
    • fluids account for blood volume.
    • fluids maintain body temperature
    • fluids protect and lubricate body tissues
  8. water is an excellent solvent because it can
    dissolve many different substances
  9. lean tissue is lost with____and therefore more_______
    age/body fluid
  10. body fluid is composed of
    sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus
  11. _____water is lost through the skin(sweat)or through the lungs during exhalation
  12. consuming too much sodium can occur in patients with
    conjustive heart failure or kidney disease and results in high blood volume, edema, and high blood pressure
  13. not consuming enough sodium can result in
    • hypotremia(low blood sodium level)
    • prolonged vomiting, diarhhea, or sweating
    • seen in marothon runners who drink to much water
  14. potassium is critical to
    regulate normal heart beat
  15. functions of sodium
    • fluid and electrolyte balance
    • associated w/blood pressure/water balance
    • required for nerve impulse transmission
    • 2300/1.5 grams required daily
  16. metabolic water is a product of many chemical reactions and contributes
    10-14 % of bodys needs
  17. The_____control how much water is reabsorbed. Excess water is____.
  18. Functions of water
    • required for fluid and electrolyte balance
    • maintain our bodys temperature
    • accounts for most our body weight involved in all body processes
  19. the body fluid composition of tissue varies by:
    • tissue type
    • gender
    • age
  20. lean tissue is more than
    70%fluid (10-20% fat)
  21. which gender haves more lean tissue and therefore morfe body fluid
  22. since water has a high capacity
    the temperature of our body fluids remain quite stable
  23. increased blood volume can cause____

    decreased blood volume can cause____
    • HTT hypertension/
    • low blood pressure
  24. blood volume is
    the amount of fluid in the blood
  25. water follows the movement by_____to areas where______
    • osmosis/the concentration of electrolytes is high.....
    • This allows controlled movement of fluids
  26. electrolytes helps nerves
    respond to stimuli
  27. low blood pressure can cause people to feel
    tired, confused, and dizzy
  28. digestive secretions allow
    for easy passage of material
  29. amniotic fluid protects____
    synovial fluid is a lubricant around the _____
    both of these________________.
    • The fetus/
    • around the joints
    • as we age
  30. sweating release heat as the evaporation of
    water, cooling our skin and body temperature
  31. ___, _____, _____,& ____ can alter electrolyte balance
    diareah, vomiting, conjustive heart failure, high sodium intake
  32. symtoms of heart stroke
    rapid pulse, hot, dry skin high body temp, weakness
  33. heat stroke occurs if
    the bodys temperature regulation mechanisms fail
  34. most likely to get dehydration
    elderly and infants/prolonged diarreha, vomiting
  35. disorders related to fluid and electrolyte imbalance include
    • dehydration
    • heat stroke
    • water intoxication
    • hypertension
  36. sourses of phosphorus
    cheese, yogurt,lentils, black beans, chicken (less likely deficient)
  37. functions of phosphorus
    • required for fluid balance
    • critical role in bone formation85% of bodys phosphorus is found in bone
  38. water lost from the body must be _____
    water lost must be_____
    water gained through_____
    • replaced
    • urine
    • beverages, foods, metabolic water
  39. __-___% of healthy adults body is composed of fluid
  40. about 2/3rds of the fluid in the body is within the body cells and is called___ ____\
    the remaining 1/3rd is_______ ___
    • intracellular fluid
    • extracellular fluid
  41. movement na and k across the membranes of nerve cells changes the_________________
    this change in elecrical carries the nerve impulse___________
    • electrical charge across the membrane
    • along the nerve cell
  42. normal blood pressure
  43. high sodium does not cause_______
    but is a direct cause of _________ ______
    • hypertension
    • kidney disease
  44. hypertension also known as high blood pressure, can increase the risk of
    developing a stroke (140/90/)
  45. How much chloride should be consumed
    no dri has been set
  46. functions of chloride
    • assist with maintaining fluid balance
    • component of HCI in the stomach
  47. salt substitutes have added
  48. not consuming enough potassium
    • can occur when taking certain diuretuic medications
    • seen in patients with kidney disease or diebetic acidosis
  49. if you consume too much potassium
    you will alter your normal heart rythm
  50. the movement of calcium (ca2+ into a muscle cell___ ____ _____
    the Ca2+ is pumped back out of the cell___ _____ ______
    • stimulates the muscles to contract
    • after the muscle contraction
  51. electrolytes signal our muscles to
  52. too much vitamin c can cause iron toxicity in people with/
    hemochromotosis (condition of having too much iron in the blood)
  53. mega doses of vitamin c can cause
    nauseaa, diarreah, nosebleeds
  54. sources of vitamin c
    red, peppers, strawberrys, brussel sprouts, etc. (heat destroys vitamin c)
  55. functions of vitamin c
    • antioxidant, (smokers need more)
    • synthesis of collagen, wound healing)prevents the disease of scurvy
    • enhances the immune system
    • enhances the absorbtion of iron
  56. if you dont consume enough vitamin e
    • can result in fragile red blood cells
    • (deficiencies are uncommon)
  57. consuming too much vitamine e
    can interfere w/antiougalant meds blood thinners)
  58. functions of vitamin e
    • primary role/antioxidant
    • liked to other benefits
  59. hype about antioxidants
    • vitamins donate their electrons to free radicals to stabalize them/
    • minerals act w/complex enzyme systems to destroy free radicals
  60. disease linked to free radicals
    cancer, heart disease, diabetes, athritis, cataracts, kidney disease, altzeimers, parkinsons
  61. free radicals cause damage to
    • cell membranes
    • low density lipoproteins(ldl)proteins in the cell, genetic material(DNA)
  62. free radicals are also produced by
    • pollution
    • ultraviolet light radiation
    • toxic substances
  63. many metabolic processes involve oxidation reactions and
    can produce free radicals
  64. free radicals are highly reactive and can cause damage to molecules in the
  65. free radical
    an atom that has lost an electron and is left with an unpaired electron
  66. if you dont consume enough vitamin c
    scurvy: bleeding gums, loss of teeth, weakness( most common deficiency disease)
  67. beta carotene is in the class of chemicals called
    carotene (precursor of vitamin A)
  68. FUNCTIONS of beta carotene
    • enhance the immune system
    • protect the skin from damage by UV light
    • protect the eyes from damage
  69. sources of beta carotene
    fruits and vegetables that are red orange, yellow and deep green.
  70. If you consume to much beta carotene
    • skin may turn yelllow or orange at high intakes wich is harmless and reversible
    • (large quantities do not appear to be toxic)
  71. if you dont consume enough beta carotene
    there are no known deficiency symptoms
  72. vitamin A is a _____ soluble vitamin
  73. excess vitamin a is stored in the
    liver, adipose tissue, kidneys, and lungs
  74. FUNCTIONS of vitamin A
    • essential to proper vision
    • antioxidant- protecting ldl cholesterol
  75. animal sources of vitamin A
    liver, eggs
  76. plant sources of vitamin A
    pro vitamin carotenoids, dRK GREEN, orange, and deep yellow fruits and vegetables
  77. If you consume too much vitamin A
    • it can be highly toxic, exspecially from supplements
    • birth defects and permanent damage to the liver and eyes can result
  78. if you dont consume enough vitamin A
    • night blindness (most common)
    • irrerversible blindness
  79. Selenium
    a trace mineral found in a few amino acids in the body
  80. FUNCTIONS of selenium
    • antioxidant properties
    • production of thyroxine, a thyroide hormone
  81. sources of selenium
    rich sources include organ meats, pork, seafood, nuts, wheat, rice (think protein)
  82. if you consume too much selenium
    • keshan disease- a form of heart disease
    • kashin beck disease- an arthritis
  83. cancer is a group of related diseases characterized by
    cells growing out of control
  84. cancer pathophycology( the three steps of tumor formation
    • initiation
    • promotion
    • progression
  85. factors that increase cancer risks include
    tobacco use, sun exposure, nutrition, environmental occupational exposure, low level physical activity, preventing oxidation damage to cells
  86. cardiovascular disease(CVD)
    • the leading death in the united states and includes
    • heart disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis
    • can lead to heart attach or stroke
  87. risk factors for CVD include:
    smoking, obesity, hypertension, high LDL levels, low hdl levels, inactivity, diabetes, aging, genetics
  88. antioxidant may reduce the risk of CVD by
    • preventing oxidative damage to LDL
    • acting as an anticoagulant to prevent blood clots(vitamin e is an antiougalant)
    • reducing low grade inflammation, anewly identified risk factor for CVD
  89. two aged related diseases that may be prevented by antioxidant in the diet are
    macular degeneration and cataracts
  90. cataracts
    damaged regions of the lens of the eye causing cloudy vision
  91. macular degeneration
    detioratoion of the macula, the center of the retina/leading cause of blindness in adults over 55
  92. how many grams reccomended daily of sodium
    less than 2.3, 1.5 required (2300 mg)
Card Set
ch 7,8,9