1. objective of prenatal care
    Identify fetal development from conception through birth

    Describe ways family history may put fetus at risk.

    Calculate gestational age of fetus.

    Describe ways to promote healthy lifestyle during pregnancy including exercise, nutrition, and rest
  2. preconception education and care consideration
    Immunizations and disease status


    Smoking, alcohol, and illicit drugs

    Genetic risk factors

    Male contributions
  3. when does fertilization/conception occur
    when sperm and ovum unite.
  4. fertilized ovum is called
  5. Gender of zygote determined at
  6. embedding of the fertilized egg into the uterine lining?
  7. one fertilized ovum divides into identical halves that develop into two individuals with same appearance and same gender
  8. Two separate ova fertilized by two different sperm at the same time. They may or may not resemble each other, may or may not be of same gender
  9. amniotic fluid traits/responsibility
    Equalizes the pressure around fetus.

    Cushions fetus from external compression.

    Provides constant temperature and fluid for fetus to swallow.

    Allows freedom of movement for fetus.

    Lubricates membranes and fetus
  10. clear yellow fluid that protects fetus
    amniotic fluid
  11. when is placenta fully functional
    12th week
  12. what is the placentas role
    Produces hormones to sustain pregnancy.

    Supplies fetus with oxygen and food.

    Transports waste products from fetus.
  13. Membranous vascular organ connecting fetus to mother.
  14. Structure connecting fetus to placenta.

    Has two arteries that carry unoxygenated blood and one vein which carries oxygenated blood.
    umbilical cord
  15. umbilical cord is surrounded and protected by
    wharton's jelly
  16. ball of knots in an umbilical cord is called
    a true knot
  17. fetal development:

    Preembryonic or germinal stage–

    Embryonic stage–

    Fetal stage–
    Preembryonic or germinal stage–first 14 daysafter fertilization

    Embryonic stage–week 3 through week 8.

    Fetal stage–week 9 until 38 to 40 weeksor full term.
  18. how is pregnancy calculated
    first day of mothers LMP
  19. living organism that applies to the first form of life
  20. when does the embryoblast usually plant in the uterine wall
    usually by the 6th day
  21. order of system development
    Cardiovascular system

    Gastrointestinal system

    Genitourinary system

    Integumentary system

    Respiratory system

    Immunologic system
  22. factors affecting fetal development
    Quality of sperm, ovum, genetic code


    Maternal malnutrition

    Acute and chronic diseases

    Alcohol and drugs

  23. a teratogen drug originally designed to combat morning sickness in pregnant women.

    causes: the long bones in the arms or legs of fetuses to not develop properly, resulting in babies with severely stunted arms or legs
  24. antibiotics that readily cross the placenta.
    and are deposited in teeth & bones of fetus
  25. tetracyline side effect in fetus
    Can cause permanent tooth enamel discoloration
  26. why do breasts usually become tender during pregnancy
    because of increased levels of estrogen and progesterone
  27. physiological changes in the pregnant cardiovascular system:

    Blood flow _________.

    Heart rate _________.

    Blood pressure ________.


  28. ________ causes edema and vascular congestion in the nasal mucosa
  29. nausea and vomiting is common before the ________ week
  30. what type of urinary physiological changes may
    develop if kidneys are unable to reabsorb glucose
  31. pigmented line on the abdomen from umbilicus to pubis
    linea nigra
  32. “mask of pregnancy" =
  33. stretch marks =
    striae gravidarum
  34. responsible for initial milk production
  35. causes uterine contractions and ejection of milk from the breasts
  36. presumptive signs of pregnancy

    Breast changes

    Urinary frequency

    Nausea and vomiting

    Excessive fatigue


    Abdominal enlargement
  37. probable signs of pregnancy
    • (G CHUBI B)
    • Goodell’s sign

    Chadwick’s sign

    Hegar’s sign

    Uterine enlargement

    Braxton-Hicks contractions

    Increased pigmentation

  38. Softening of cervix
    goodells sign
  39. softening of the lower uterine segment just above the cervix. When the uterine is compressed between examining fingers, the wall feels tissue paper thin

    *noted by the sixth to eighth week of pregnancy
    hegar's sign
  40. Bluish discolaration of the cervix, vagina, vulva
    caused by increased vascularization of reproductive organs
    chadwicks sign
  41. Observed when fetus rises (or bounces) in amniotic fluid, then returns to its normal position after a gentle
    push or tapping of the lower portion of the uterus by the examiner.

    Usually observed during the 4th or 5th month of pregnancy
  42. Mother’s first feelings of fetal movement

    a ‘fluttering’ sensation
  43. quickening in Primigradiva: usually occurs _____ trimester

    _____ weeks
    2nd trimester

    18- 20 weeks
  44. quickening in Multigravida: usually occurs _____, _____

    14 - 18 weeks
  45. what do pregancy tests measure
    hCG in either urine or blood
  46. Blood is positive ______days after

    Urine is positive _____ days after
    blood : 8 days

    urine: 10 - 14
  47. positive signs of pregnancy
    Hearing the fetal heartbeat.

    Visualization of the fetus through ultrasound.

    Examiner feeling fetal movement.
  48. pregnancy test is a _____ sign of pregnancy
  49. Transvaginal ultrasound: detect pregnancy as early
    As _______ weeks
    2 1/2 - 3 weeks
  50. Abdominal ultrasound: detects preg. as
    early as ______ weeks
    5 - 6 weeks
  51. Fetal Heart rate should be between _______ beats/min
    120 - 160
  52. factors affecting psychological response
    Body image

    Financial situation

    Cultural expectations

    Emotional security

    Support from significant others
  53. developmental task of pregnancy
    Pregnancy validation

    Fetal embodiment

    Fetal distinction

    Role transition

    Partners’ tasks
  54. goals of prenatal care
    Healthy, prepared mother, minimal discomforts

    Potential problems or complicationsIdentified as early as possible

    Safe delivery of a healthy infant

    Prepared father, partner

    Prepared siblings and grandparents
  55. Woman who has delivered her first viable infant
  56. woman who has delivered more than one viable infant
  57. woman pregnant for first time
  58. Woman who has been pregnant more than once
  59. gravida
    number of pregnancies
  60. Primary concern for initial visit =
    clients health status, and estimate date of delivery
  61. nagele's rule
    • Add 7 days to the first day of the
    • last menstrual period

    Then count back 3 months
  62. Measurement of fundal height correlates with?
    Gestational age (on average)
  63. nursing Dx
    • Activity intolerance
    • Anxiety
    • Breathing pattern, ineffective
    • Body image disturbance
    • Constipation
    • Fatigue
    • Family coping
    • Fear
    • Fluid volume deficit
    • Excess fluid volume
    • Ineffective health maintenance
    • Health seeking behaviors
    • Ineffective coping
    • Risk for injury
    • Deficient knowledge
    • Noncompliance
    • Imbalanced nutrition
    • Impaired physical mobility
    • Sexual dysfunction
    • Disturbed sleep pattern
  64. nursing intervention for pregnant women
    Must be individualized and specific for client.

    Focused on teaching the client and providing anticipatory guidance.
Card Set
OB 50