The crises of the 1890's generated a broad, complex reform movement known as Progressivism. Progressives wanted to end abuses of power, replace corrupt power with humane institutions, and apply scientific principles and efficient management to economic, social, and political institutions. Many looked to government as the agent of change.
How did organizations begin to influence government policy in the 1890's?
They fragmented politics and made them more issue-oriented.
What foreign ideas made an impact on Progressive reformers in the late 19th and early 20th century?
Ideas from Europe.
Who formed the vangaurd of the Progressive movement?
The new middle class.
Who were "muckrackers"?
Journalists who raised interest in reform, particularly among urban Americans.
What did people do to make officeholders more responsible?
They urged adoption of the initiative, referendum, and recall.
What reforms did the upper-class support?
Businessmen supported political and social reform, humanitarians seeked social justice, and elite women encouraged social reform.
What did working class reformers support?
For labor and safety reform.
Who did inner-city voters elect?
Who turned to socialism?
Workers who wanted substantive changes in society.
True/False: The North led the way in Progressive political reform.
False. The South did, although racism tainted southern Progressive politics.
Who were opponents of Progressivism, and why?
Many politicians and capitalists. They felt it was too much interference in the free market.
What did Progressives believe the role of the government should be?
Guardian of the people.
True/False: Progressive reformers first tried to eliminate corruption from government at the city level, and then shifted their attention the the state level.
True/False: Political reforms had greater influence than state laws promoting social welfare.
False. It was the other way around.
What did reformers seek through movements such as the anti-liquor crusade?
A better moral climate.
Which amendment successfully banned the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages?
The Eighteenth Amendment.
After reformers attacked prostitution, what did Congress pass? What did states criminalize?
The White Slave Traffic Act in 1910. States criminalized prostitution.
What did Progressive educators beleive?
That learning should focus on real-life problems and that children should learn to use their intelligence to control their environment.
What did Progressive lawyers argue?
That the law should be flexible enough to reflect the needs of society.
What did Sociologists insist would cure social ills?
What did Social Gospelers beleive?
They beleived that they could counter the brutality of competitive capitalism by applying Christian principles to world matters.
What did Eugenicists seek to protect?
They wanted to protect American society from reproduction by "inferior" people by advocating sterilization and restrictions on immigration.
What did Booker T. Washington beleive blacks should do?
He beleived they shoulf temporarily accomodate themselves to whites, and first prove themselves worthy of other rights by acquiring property.
What did W.E.B. Du Bois beleive African Americans should do?
He beleived the "Talented Tenth" should use their skills to pursue racial equality.
True/False: Washington helped form the NAACP.
False. Du Bois helped form it.
True/False: The Society of American Indians proved to be successful.
False. It could not solve issues between tribal loyalties and pressure for assimilation, and folded early in the 1920's.
What did those who wanted women to move out of the home and into social activities, higher education, and paid labor call themselves?
"The Woman Movement"
What did women do due to the fact that they were excluded from holding political office?
They joined clubs that showed interest in improving society rather than reforming society.
What term did women begin using around 1910 to describe their reform efforts?
What did Margaret Sanger push for?
Widespread use of contraceptives.
What did the 19th Amendment do?
It gave women the vote in national elections.
What did Theodore Roosevelt beleive about government?
He beleived government should direct national affais, and act as an umpire be deciding when big business was good or bad.
What did Roosevelt first regulate?
Trusts, by having the Northern Securities Company dissolved. He also pushed to regulate legislation.
What book pushed Roosevelt to support the Meat Inspection Act?
Upton Sinclair's " The Jungle"
What did the Pure Food and Drug Act address?
Abuses in the patent-medicine industry.
In the United Mine Workers strike of 1902, what beleif did Roosevelt demonstrate?
That the president and his representatives should determine which labor demands were legitimate and which were not.
True/False: Roosevelt favored preservation over conservation.
False. He favored conservation by tripling the number and acreage of national forests.