PSYC 104

  1. What is psychology
    study of the mind, grain and behavior. Spans over many levels of analysis
  2. Why is human behavior hard to predict?
    actions are multiply determined
  3. People influence each other by what
    reciprocal determinism
  4. What is behavior shaped by?
  5. What is naive realism?
    belief that we see the world like it is
  6. What does science begin with?
  7. What is scientific theory?
    explanation for a large finding
  8. Hypothesis
    prediction based on a theory
  9. Theory
    general hypothesis=scientific predictions
  10. Confirmation bias
    tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypothesis and neglect of distort evidence contradicting it
  11. Belief perserverance
    tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them
  12. Pseudoscience
    set of claims that seem scientific but are not

    testable beliefs not tested

    warning signs: exaggerated claims, lack of review, over reliance on anecdotes
  13. Apophenia
    when we find connections among random phenomenon
  14. Pareidolia
    seeing meaningful images in meaningless visual stimuli
  15. Emotional reasoning fallacy
    error of using our emotions as guides for evaluating the validity of a claim
  16. Appeal to ignorance fallacy
    a claim that has to be true because no one has yet to prove it false
  17. band wagon fallacy
    lots of people believe it so it must be true
  18. not me fallacy
    they believe that they are immune to biases, other people make mistakes but not me
  19. Scientific Skepticism
    coming with an open mind but need to see scientific evidence before believing it
  20. Critical thinking
    a set of skills for evaluating all claims in an open minded fashion- allows us to overcome biases
  21. What are the 6 principles of critical thinking?
    • 1. ruling out rival hypotheses
    • 2. correlation vs causation- correlations doesn't equal causation
    • 3. falsifiability- can the claim be disproven
    • 4. replicability- idea that a studies finding can be duplicated
    • 5. extraordinary claims- is the evidence as convincing as the claims
    • 6. occams razor or kiss - if two explanations fit equally, accept the simpler one
  22. Variable
    anything that can vary across people
  23. William wunt
    made fitst lab in germany
  24. Introspection
    William Wundt trained people to reflect on their own mental experiences
  25. Structuralism
    Wundt, EB Titcher aimed to identify basic elements of psyc experience used introspection

    insistence on systemic data collection
  26. Functionalism
    William James hoped to understand the adaptive purposes of psyc characteristics

    influence of evolutionary theory
  27. Behaviorism
    Watson & Skinner focuses on uncovering the general laws of learning by looking outside the organisms

    "black box"- the mind is a black box, only need to look at what goes in and comes out

    help understand how we learn and importance on scientific rigor
  28. Cognitivism
    Piaget, Neisser focuses on mental process involved in different aspects of thinking, focuses on not only rewards or punishers but interpretation
  29. Psychoanalysis
    Freud, Jung. Focuses on internal psychological processes which we are unaware of

    • everyday lives filled with symbols/dreams
    • early experience- what happened when a child?
    • controversy because it focuses on unconsisous "retarded" studies and many theories not falsifiable
  30. Nature vs Nurture
    are our behaviors because our genes or rearing environments
  31. Tabula Rasa
    blank slate when you are born
  32. behavior geneticists
    interests and personality and mental is influenced by genes
  33. evolutionary psychology
    social biology
  34. Free will vs Determinism
    to what extent are out behaviors freely selected rather than caused by outside factors?
  35. How does psychology affect our lives?
    • basic- examines how the mind works
    • applied- examines how we use basic research to solve real world problems
  36. Facilitated Testing
    someone sat next to children and "guided" their hands
  37. Heuristics
    • mental shortcuts or rules of thumb that we use daily
    • this reduces cognitive energy required to solve problems
  38. Representativeness
    • like goes with like
    • judge the probability of something by its superficial similarity to something else
    • we ignore how common behaviors actually are in population and commit base rate fallacy
  39. Availability
    • off the top of my head
    • estimating the likelihood of an occurrence based on the ease with which it comes to mind
  40. Cognitive biases
    systemic errors in thinking that can lead to confidence in false conclusions
  41. Hindsight bias
    "I knew it all along"
  42. Confirmation Bias
    seek out info that you like but disregard any evidence against it
  43. Over confidence bias
    overestimate our ability to make correct predictions
  44. Who are the best at predictions?
    • statistical programs
    • foxes
    • experts in a different field
    • hedge hogs- most confident
  45. Naturalistic observation
    • watching behavior in real world settings
    • high degree of external validity( extent to which we can generalize our findings to the real world)
    • low degree of internal validity ( extent to which we can draw cause and effect inferences
  46. Case study designs
    • studying one person of a small number of people for an extended period of time
    • depth is traded for breadth
  47. Self report measures
    • access characteristics such as personality and mental illness
    • pros- easy to administer
    • cons- accuracy is skewed, potential for dishonesty
    • response sets- subjects distort responses
  48. surveys
    ask about a persons opinions or abilities
  49. Random selection
    • key to generalizability in surveys and studies
    • ensures every person has an equal chance of being chosen
  50. What was the Hite Reports?
    • sent 100,000 surveys to women and showed many were unhappy with relationships
    • problem was only 4.5 of people responded
    • example of random selection
  51. Reliability
    consistence of measurement
  52. Validity
    • extent to which a measure access what it claims to measure
    • a test must be reliable to be valid, but a reliable test can still be invaild
  53. Correlation Designs
    • examine how two variables are related
    • depicted in scatter plots
    • pros- reveal the nature of the relationship
    • cons- appear to be correlated but are not
  54. Illusory Correlation
    perception of a statistical association where none exists
  55. Determining Causation
    only way to determine through an experimental design
  56. Cause & Effect
    possible to infer with random assignment and manipulation of independent variable
  57. Random Assignment
    • experimental group receives manipulation
    • control group does not
  58. Manipulation of independent variable
    the dependent variable is what the experimenter measures to see if manipulation had an effect
  59. What are the pitfalls of experimental design?
    • placebo effect- improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement
    • experimenter expectancy effect- lead researchers to unintentionally bias outcome (clever hans)
    • demand characteristics- cues that participants pick up that allow them to generate guesses regarding what the researchers expect to happen
  60. Tuskegee Study
    African American men diagnosed with syphilis they they only studied the men, never treated it
  61. IRB
    research has to go through review institutional review board
  62. Evaluating Media
    Reporters are not scientists, consider the source
  63. Sharpening
    emphasis on central finding
  64. leveling
    lessing effect of other information
  65. pseudo-symmetry
    dont want to be partisan, make two sides equal
  66. Myth Conceptions of Mental Illness
    • For- foucalt, people with MI are stigmatized, diagnoses used for social control, difficult to tell if someone has an MI
    • Against- plenty of behaviors mainstream society doesn't like that are not called MI (laziness, jealously) none deal with whether MI is a valid concept
  67. Statistical Rarity (conception of MI)
    • MD are mental conditions which are rare and few people experience them
    • For- some are very rare
    • Against- some are rare are not mental disorders (high intelligence, creativity) and some are quite common (depression)
  68. Whatever mental health professionals treat ( conception of MI)
    • anything therapists are concerned about
    • for-practical
    • against-not everything they treat is a mental illness(marital problems) sometimes professional clients are wrong, does something stop being an MI if therapists stop caring about it?
  69. An evolutionary adaptation ( conception of MI)
    • like physical pain actually helps us more than hurts us (feeling pain after touching a stove)
    • for- they are harmful, they are heritable and relitavely common, adapted because they served a purpose in the past
    • against- too debilitating
  70. Does society create it? (conception of MI)
    are all MD created by society?
  71. Hypnosis
    • asked to recall details whether they are real or not
    • is unreliable
    • make people remember events that didnt happen
    • most people with MPD are borderline personality disorder
  72. Borderline PD
    marked by instability in mood identity
  73. Harmful Dysfunction Analysis (HDA)
    disorder is when a persons brain mechanisms don't perform their functions
  74. Detecting a dysfunction
    • suffer relapse
    • found difference in brains of people who have been depressed and people who haven't
  75. Middle Ages
    demonic, odd behaviors were the result of evil spirits
  76. Renaissance
    • saw MI as a physical illness
    • housing people in asylums , crowded and understaffed
  77. Reformers
    • wanted more moral treatment
    • still no effective treatments
  78. Early 1950's
    • chlorpromazine- appeared to decrease symptoms
    • deinstitutionalization- due to invention of new drugs
  79. Modern Era
    • community mental health centers
    • patients return to normal life but many have no follow up care
  80. DSM IV
    • diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
    • contain criteria for mental disorders
  81. Axes 1
    • major mental disorders
    • depression, alcohol abuse
  82. Axes 2
    • personality disorders and mental retardation
    • longstanding harmful dysfunctions in personality traits
  83. Axes 3
    • associated medical conditions
    • brain injury, neck pain
  84. Axes 4
    • life stressors
    • boss, poverty, family issues
  85. Axes 5
    overall level of daily functioning
  86. DSM criticisms
    • not all criteria for disorders are based on science
    • high level of comorbidity, many people meet criteria for more than one disorder
    • reliance on categorical rather than deminsional model
    • people are vulnerable to social influences
    • validity problem- possible for two people to have the same diagnosis with no shared symptoms
  87. How long must a person wait before being diagnosed?
    2 weeks
  88. How many symptoms must a person have to be diagnosed with a MD?
    5 out of 9
Card Set
PSYC 104
test one