SOC Review

  1. “The basis of our governments being the
    opinion of the people, the very first object should be to keep that right; and
    were it left to me to decide if we should have a government without newspapers
    or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer
    the latter. But I should mean that every man should receive those papers
    and be capable of reading them.”
  2. “No one ever went broke
    underestimating the taste of the American public.”
  3. We do not say that a
    man who has no interest in politics is a man who minds his own business.
    We say he is a man who has no business here at all.”
  4. When will there be justice in
    Athens? There will be justice in Athens when those who are not injured
    are as outraged as those who are.”
  5. “Just because you do not take an interest in
    politics doesn’t mean politics won’t take an interest in you.”
  6. The loss of direction felt in a society when social
    control of individual behavior has become ineffective (page 10)
  7. The use of the discipline of sociology
    with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior
    and organizations (18)
    Applied Sociology:
  8. : Sociology inquiry conducted with the
    objective of gaining a more profound knowledge of the fundamental aspects of
    social phenomena. Also known as pure sociology (18)
    Basic Sociology
  9. : The use of the discipline of sociology
    with the specific intent of altering social relationships or restructuring
    social institutions (18)
    Clinical Sociology
  10. A sociological approach that assumes
    that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between groups over
    power or the allocation of resources, including housing, money, access to
    services, and political representation (14)
    Conflict perspective:
  11. Noneconomic goods, such as family
    background and education, which are reflected in a knowledge of language and
    the arts (13)
    Cultural Capital:
  12. The division of an individual’s
    identity into two or more social realities (11)
    Double Consciousness:
  13. A view of social interaction in
    which people are seen as theatrical performers
    Dramaturgical Approach:
  14. An element or process of a society that may
    disrupt the social system or reduce its stability (14)
  15. A sociological approach that views inequity
    in gender as central to all behavior and organization (14)
    Feminist view:
  16. A sociological approach that
    emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain
    its stability (13)
    Functionalist perspective:
  17. The worldwide integration of government
    policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and
    the exchange of ideas (19)
  18. A construct or model for evaluating specific
    cases (10)
    Ideal type:
  19. A sociological approach that
    generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain
    society as a whole (15)
    Interactionist perspective:
  20. An unconscious or unintended function that
    may reflect hidden purposes (14)
    Latent function:
  21. Sociological investigation that concentrates
    on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations (12)
  22. An open, stated and conscious function
    Manifest function:
  23. Sociological investigation that stresses the
    study of small groups, often through experimental means (12)
  24. The study of the physical features of
    nature and the ways in which they interact and change (5)
    Natural science:
  25. The sending of messages through the
    use of gestures, facial expressions, and postures (15)
    Nonverbal communication:
  26. The body of knowledge obtained by methods based on
    systematic observation
  27. The collective benefit of social networks,
    which are built on reciprocal trust (13)
    Social capital:
  28. A condition in which members of society
    have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power (19)
    Social inequality:
  29. The study of the social features of humans
    and the ways in which they interact and change (6)
    Social science:
  30. An awareness of the relationship
    between an individual and the wider society, both today and in the past (5)
    Sociological imagination:
  31. : In sociology, a set of statements that seeks to
    explain problems, actions or behavior (8)
  32. The German word for “understanding” or “insight”;
    used to stress the need for sociologists to take into account the subjective
    meanings people attach to their actions (10)
  33. The relationship between a condition or
    variable and a particular consequence, with one event leading to the other (30)
    Causal logic:
  34. The standards of acceptable behavior
    developed by and for members of a profession (39)
    Code of ethics:
  35. The systematic coding and objective
    recording of data, guided by some rationale (38)
    Content analysis:
  36. The subjects in an experiment who are not
    introduced to the independent variable by the researcher (37)
    Control group:
  37. A factor that is held constant to test the
    relative impact of an independent variable (33)
    Control variable:
  38. A relationship between two variables in which a
    change in one coincides with a change in the other (30)
  39. A table or matrix that shows the
    relationship between two or more variables (46)
  40. The variable in a causal relationship
    that is subject to the influence of another variable (30)
    Dependent variable:
  41. The study of an entire social setting through
    extended systematic observation (36)
  42. An artificially created situation that allows a
    researcher to manipulate variables (37)
  43. The subjects in an experiment who are
    exposed to an independent variable introduced by a researcher (37)
    Experimental group:
  44. The unintended influence that observers of
    experiments can have on their subjects (37)
    Hawthorne effect:
  45. A speculative statement about the relationship
    between two or more variables (30)
  46. The variable in a causal
    relationship that causes or influences a change in another variable (30)
    Independent variable:
  47. A face-to-face, telephone, or online
    questioning of a respondent to obtain desired information (35)
  48. A number calculated by adding a series of values and
    then dividing by the number of values (45)
  49. The midpoint or number that divides a series of
    values into two groups of equal numbers of values (46)
  50. The single most common values in a series of scores
  51. A research technique in which an investigator
    collects information through direct participation and/or by closely watching a
    group or community (36)
  52. An explanation of an abstract
    concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to assess the concept
    Operational definition:
  53. A portion of 100 (45)
  54. Research that relies on what is seen
    in field or naturalistic settings more than on statistical data (36)
    Qualitative research:
  55. Research that collects and reports
    data primarily in numerical form (36)
    Quantitative research:
  56. A printed or written form used to obtain
    information from a respondent (35)
  57. A sample for which every member of an entire
    population has the same chance of being selected (32)
    Random sample:
  58. The extent to which a measure produces
    consistent results (32)
  59. A detailed plan or method for obtaining
    data scientifically (34)
    Research design:
  60. Specialized language used by members of a group or
    subculture (61)
  61. The use of two languages in a
    particular setting, such as the workplace r schoolroom, treating each language
    as equally legitimate (72)
  62. A subculture that deliberately
    opposes certain aspects of the larger culture (62)
  63. The systematic destruction of
    a group’s culture (57)
    Cultural genocide:
  64. The viewing of people’s behavior from
    the perspective of their culture (56)
    Cultural relativism:
  65. A common practice or belief found in
    every culture (56)
    Cultural universal:
  66. The totality of learned, socially transmitted
    customs, knowledge, material objects and behavior (55)
  67. The worldwide media industry that
    standardizes the goods and services demanded by consumers (56)
    Culture industry:
  68. A period of maladjustment when the nonmaterial
    culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions (60)
    Culture lag:
  69. The feeling of surprise and disorientation
    that people experience when they encounter cultural practices that are
    different from their own (62)
    Culture shock:
  70. The polarization of society over controversial
    cultural elements (70)
    Culture war:
  71. The process by which a cultural item
    spreads from group to group or society to society (59)
  72. The process of making known or
    sharing the existence of an aspect or reality (59)
  73. : A set of cultural beliefs and practices
    that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests (70)
    Dominant ideology
  74. The tendency to assume that one’s culture and
    way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others (56)
  75. A norm of governing everyday behavior whose
    violation raises comparatively little concern (66)
  76. A norm that has been written down and specifies
    strict punishments for violators (66)
    Formal norm:
  77. The deliberate, systematic killing of
    an entire people or nation (57)
  78. A norm that is generally
    understood but not precisely recorded (66)
    Informal norm:
  79. The process of introducing a new idea
    or object to a culture through discovery or invention (59)
  80. The combination of existing cultural items into a
    form that did not exist before (59)
  81. An abstract system of word meanings
    and symbols for all aspects of culture; includes gestures and other nonverbal
    communication (63)
  82. Governmental social control (66)
  83. The physical or technological aspects of
    our daily lives (60)
    Material culture:
  84. Norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of
    society (66)
  85. Ways of using material objects, as well
    as customs, beliefs, philosophies, governments, and patterns of communication
    Nonmaterial culture:
  86. An established standard of behavior maintained by a
    society (65)
  87. A penalty or reward for conduct concerning a
    social norm (67)
  88. A hypothesis concerning the role of
    language in shaping our interpretation of reality. It holds that language is
    culturally determined (64)
    Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
  89. A fairly large number of people who live in the
    same territory, are relatively independent of people outside their area, and
    participate in a common culture (55)
  90. The systematic study of how biology affects
    human social behavior (57)
  91. A segment of society that shares a distinctive
    pattern of customs, rules, and traditions that differs from the patter of the
    larger society (61)
  92. A gesture, object or word that forms the basis of
    human communication (64)
  93. Cultural information about how to use the
    material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires (60)
  94. A collective conception of what is considered good,
    desirable, and proper—or bad, undesirable, and improper—in a culture (68)
  95. 1858-1917-Philosophy

    Key Works: The Division of Labor in Society, Suicide: A
    Study in Sociology, Elementary Forms of Religious Life
    Emile Durkheim
  96. 1864-1920-Law, economics, history, philosophy

    Key Works:
    The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit
    of Capitalism, Economy and Society
    Max Weber
  97. 1818-1883-Philosophy, Law

    Key Works: The Communist Manifesto, Das Kapital
    Karl Marx
  98. 1868-1963-Sociology

    Key Works: The Philadelphia Negro, The Negro
    Church, Souls of Black Folk
  99. W.E.B. DuBois
Card Set
SOC Review
SOC 101