What determines the effect of a neurotransmitter?
What are the 4 monoamines
seratonin, epinphrine, noepinphrine, and dopamine
What are the 3 catecholamines?
epinphrine, noepinphrine, and dopamine
What are the catecholamines sythesized with?
What is seratonin sythesized with?
What are the three way for monoamines to be removed from the synatic cleft?
- 1. monoamine oxidase destroys it
- 2. move back into presynaptic neuron by facilitated diffusion.
- 3. COMT (catechol-o-methyl transferase) in post-synaptic cell incativates the catecholamines.
What is the mechanims for monamine NT transport?
- 1. NT binds to the G-protein which activates Adenylate Cyclase which is located in the PM.
- 2. Adenylate turns ATP into cAMP+ PiPi. cAMP is the 2nd messenger.
- 3.cAMP turns on protien kinase which ''P" various proteins including the ion channel which opens/close.
- 4. this cause the generation of EPSP or IPSP (graded potential)
- 5. To turn off g-protein turns off, cAMP destoyed by Phosphodiesterase, kinase is dephophoryalated and the NT is destoyed by MAO or COMT.
What destroys cAMP?
What are the 5 regions of the brain?
- 1. Telencephalon
- 2. Diencephalon
- 3. Mesencephalon
- 4. Metencephalon
- 5. Mylencephalon
What makes up the Telencephalon?
left and right cerebral hemispheres(cerebrum). compesed of gray matter. Gray matter on surface=cerbral cortex, in basement=basal nuclei
suface layer of the telencephalon composed of gray matter
basement of the telencephalon composed of gray matter
What is the Diencephalon composed of?
box shaped with epithalamus as the roof, thalamus as the sides, and hypothalamus as the bottom. hanging off the the hypothalamus is the pituitary gland
top of the box shaped structure of the diencephalon
thick walls of the diencephalon
floor of the box shaped structure of the diencephalon
hangs off of the hypothalamus of the diencephalon.
What is the Mesencephalon composed of?
midbrain which contains the tectum(roof) and the tegementum(floor)
roof of the mesecephalon of the midbrain
floor of the mesencephalon of the midbrain
What is the Metencephalon composed of?
the metencephalon which is responsible for the inconscience control of skeletal muscles.
What is the Mylencephalon composed of?
the medulla oblongata
makes up the mylencephalon which have nuclei which are important to the ANS
What is seratonin important for?
mood(bipolar, migranes, depression, anxiety), appetite, and cerbral circulation (vasconstricion and dilation)
Neurons that have receptors for Seratonin are called?
Cell bodies of seratonin recpetors are located where?
Raphe Nucleus of the ponds
What are SSRI's?
Seratonin Specific Re-uptake Inhibitors
Dopamine receptors are called?
What are the two types of systems for dopamine ?
- 1. Nigrostriatial
- 2. Mesolimbic
Nigrostratial Dopamine System
- -cell bodies in the mesencephalon in the substantia nigra. the axon extend into the basal nuclei(corpus straitum)
- - important in the initiation of skeletal muscles
found in the mesencephalon wher cell bodie of the nigrostriatial systems are found.
Mesolimbic Dopamine System
cell bodies are located in the tegmentum with axons that reach to the limbic system. responsible for teaching and reward
NT for some neurons in the CNS(attentiona and focus) and in the ANS(sympathetic fight/flight)
What 3 things besides Monoamines can be neurotransmitters?
- 1. Amino Acids
- 2. Gas
- 3. Lipids
What are the two gas NT?
- 1. Nitric Oxide
- 2. Carbon Monoxide
What 4 amino acids are nt?
- 1. glutamic acid
- 2. aspartic acid
- 3. glycine
- 4. GABA
Amino Acid neurotransmitters can be both _____ and ___?
excititory(EPSP) and inhibitory (IPSP)
Amino acid nt, ionotropic receptor, involved in learning and memory
synapse aren't that simple the undergo long term potentiation
Long term potentiation
the more you use a neuron the more efficent it becomes
inhibitory amino acid nt, ionotropic receptor which allows cl- to flow in, important on the spinal cord, generate ipsp on cell body of motor neuron
gamma amino butyric acid, inhibitory amino acid nt in the brain responsible for IPSP on somatic motor, in purkinje cells
What are the 2 excititory amino acid neurontransmitters?
glutamic acid and apartic acid
What are the 2 types of inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters?
glycine and GABA
What are the 2 polypeptide nt?
- 1. Cholecystokinin
- 2. Substance p
polypeptide nt produced in the digestive tract reponsible for the feeling of fullness
polypeptide nt in the neural pathway that mediate the sensation of pain
What are the 3 endogenous opiods
- 1. Beta endorphins
- 2. Enkephalins
- 3. Dynorphin
How do endogenous opiods work
axoaxonal synapse with the pre neuron inhibiting the ca 2+ voltage gated channels
What is the endogenous lipid nt
What type of neurons make up the ANS?
What do the visceral motor neurons of the ANS inervate?
cardiac m. smooth m. and glands
Postganglonic cells of the ANS have there cell bodies where?
in the autonomic ganglia
What are the two motor neurons of the PNS
somatic and viseral
What are the 3 types of autonomic ganglia
- 1. chain ganglia (paravertebral)
- 2. collateral ganglia (prevertebral)
- 3. terminal ganlia
The cell bodies of the pre-gang neuron of the sympathetic divsion of the ANS are located where?
gray matter of the spinal cord
What part of the spinal cord contains the cell bodies of the pre-gang of the sympathetic ans?
In the sympathetic portion of the ANS the axons of the visceral motor goes thru the _____ _____ ___and leaves and goes to the ___ _____ _______, and enters the ____ ____
- spinal nerve proper
- white ramus communicates
- chain ganglia
After the axon of the neuron of the sympathetic ans has reached the chain ganglia what 3 things can happen?
- 1. if below diaphram goes thru chain ganglia and enter coelom to from the splantic nerve and go to collateral ganglion to synapse with post.
- 2. In ganglion synapse with post symp. The post then return to spinal nerve to make up gray ramus communicates.
- 3. in chain ganglia it can go up or down and synapse with post of different ganglia
What are the two divisons of the Pituitary glands?
The pituitary gland hangs from the hypothalamus by what?
What are the 6 hormones of the adenohypophysis
- 1. Somatotropin (growth h)
- 2. Thyrotropin (Thyriod stimulating h)
- 3. Corticotropin (Adrenalcorticotropic ATCH)
- 4. Folliculotropin(Follicle Stimulating h)
- 5. Luteotropin (Luteninzing h LH)
- 6. Protactin (PRL)
What are the 3 collateral ganglion
- 1. Celiac
- 2. Superior Mesenteric
- 3. Inferior Mesenteric
What does convergence and divergence allow for?
Adrenal gland is divdied into what 2 parts?
cortex on the outside and medulla on the inside
Cortex is made of and what does it secrete?
The A. medulla is made from what?
What part of the Adrenal gland is inervated by symp. pre.gang. neurons?