Bio460 (2)

  1. What determines the effect of a neurotransmitter?
    the receptor
  2. What are the 4 monoamines
    seratonin, epinphrine, noepinphrine, and dopamine
  3. What are the 3 catecholamines?
    epinphrine, noepinphrine, and dopamine
  4. What are the catecholamines sythesized with?
  5. What is seratonin sythesized with?
  6. What are the three way for monoamines to be removed from the synatic cleft?
    • 1. monoamine oxidase destroys it
    • 2. move back into presynaptic neuron by facilitated diffusion.
    • 3. COMT (catechol-o-methyl transferase) in post-synaptic cell incativates the catecholamines.
  7. What is the mechanims for monamine NT transport?
    • 1. NT binds to the G-protein which activates Adenylate Cyclase which is located in the PM.
    • 2. Adenylate turns ATP into cAMP+ PiPi. cAMP is the 2nd messenger.
    • 3.cAMP turns on protien kinase which ''P" various proteins including the ion channel which opens/close.
    • 4. this cause the generation of EPSP or IPSP (graded potential)
    • 5. To turn off g-protein turns off, cAMP destoyed by Phosphodiesterase, kinase is dephophoryalated and the NT is destoyed by MAO or COMT.
  8. What destroys cAMP?
  9. What are the 5 regions of the brain?
    • 1. Telencephalon
    • 2. Diencephalon
    • 3. Mesencephalon
    • 4. Metencephalon
    • 5. Mylencephalon
  10. What makes up the Telencephalon?
    left and right cerebral hemispheres(cerebrum). compesed of gray matter. Gray matter on surface=cerbral cortex, in basement=basal nuclei
  11. Cerbral cortex
    suface layer of the telencephalon composed of gray matter
  12. Basal nuclei
    basement of the telencephalon composed of gray matter
  13. What is the Diencephalon composed of?
    box shaped with epithalamus as the roof, thalamus as the sides, and hypothalamus as the bottom. hanging off the the hypothalamus is the pituitary gland
  14. Epithalamus
    top of the box shaped structure of the diencephalon
  15. Thalamus
    thick walls of the diencephalon
  16. Hypothalamus
    floor of the box shaped structure of the diencephalon
  17. Pituitary gland
    hangs off of the hypothalamus of the diencephalon.
  18. What is the Mesencephalon composed of?
    midbrain which contains the tectum(roof) and the tegementum(floor)
  19. Tectum
    roof of the mesecephalon of the midbrain
  20. Tegmentum
    floor of the mesencephalon of the midbrain
  21. What is the Metencephalon composed of?
  22. Cerebellum
    the metencephalon which is responsible for the inconscience control of skeletal muscles.
  23. What is the Mylencephalon composed of?
    the medulla oblongata
  24. Medulla Oblongata
    makes up the mylencephalon which have nuclei which are important to the ANS
  25. What is seratonin important for?
    mood(bipolar, migranes, depression, anxiety), appetite, and cerbral circulation (vasconstricion and dilation)
  26. Neurons that have receptors for Seratonin are called?
  27. Cell bodies of seratonin recpetors are located where?
    Raphe Nucleus of the ponds
  28. What are SSRI's?
    Seratonin Specific Re-uptake Inhibitors
  29. Dopamine receptors are called?
  30. What are the two types of systems for dopamine ?
    • 1. Nigrostriatial
    • 2. Mesolimbic
  31. Nigrostratial Dopamine System
    • -cell bodies in the mesencephalon in the substantia nigra. the axon extend into the basal nuclei(corpus straitum)
    • - important in the initiation of skeletal muscles
  32. Substantial Nigra
    found in the mesencephalon wher cell bodie of the nigrostriatial systems are found.
  33. Mesolimbic Dopamine System
    cell bodies are located in the tegmentum with axons that reach to the limbic system. responsible for teaching and reward
  34. Norepinephrine
    NT for some neurons in the CNS(attentiona and focus) and in the ANS(sympathetic fight/flight)
  35. What 3 things besides Monoamines can be neurotransmitters?
    • 1. Amino Acids
    • 2. Gas
    • 3. Lipids
  36. What are the two gas NT?
    • 1. Nitric Oxide
    • 2. Carbon Monoxide
  37. What 4 amino acids are nt?
    • 1. glutamic acid
    • 2. aspartic acid
    • 3. glycine
    • 4. GABA
  38. Amino Acid neurotransmitters can be both _____ and ___?
    excititory(EPSP) and inhibitory (IPSP)
  39. Glutamic Acid
    Amino acid nt, ionotropic receptor, involved in learning and memory
  40. Synaptic plasticity
    synapse aren't that simple the undergo long term potentiation
  41. Long term potentiation
    the more you use a neuron the more efficent it becomes
  42. Glycine
    inhibitory amino acid nt, ionotropic receptor which allows cl- to flow in, important on the spinal cord, generate ipsp on cell body of motor neuron
  43. GABA
    gamma amino butyric acid, inhibitory amino acid nt in the brain responsible for IPSP on somatic motor, in purkinje cells
  44. What are the 2 excititory amino acid neurontransmitters?
    glutamic acid and apartic acid
  45. What are the 2 types of inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters?
    glycine and GABA
  46. What are the 2 polypeptide nt?
    • 1. Cholecystokinin
    • 2. Substance p
  47. Cholecystokinin
    polypeptide nt produced in the digestive tract reponsible for the feeling of fullness
  48. Substance P
    polypeptide nt in the neural pathway that mediate the sensation of pain
  49. What are the 3 endogenous opiods
    • 1. Beta endorphins
    • 2. Enkephalins
    • 3. Dynorphin
  50. How do endogenous opiods work
    axoaxonal synapse with the pre neuron inhibiting the ca 2+ voltage gated channels
  51. What is the endogenous lipid nt
  52. What type of neurons make up the ANS?
    visceral motor
  53. What do the visceral motor neurons of the ANS inervate?
    cardiac m. smooth m. and glands
  54. Postganglonic cells of the ANS have there cell bodies where?
    in the autonomic ganglia
  55. What are the two motor neurons of the PNS
    somatic and viseral
  56. What are the 3 types of autonomic ganglia
    • 1. chain ganglia (paravertebral)
    • 2. collateral ganglia (prevertebral)
    • 3. terminal ganlia
  57. The cell bodies of the pre-gang neuron of the sympathetic divsion of the ANS are located where?
    gray matter of the spinal cord
  58. What part of the spinal cord contains the cell bodies of the pre-gang of the sympathetic ans?
    Thoracolumbar divsion
  59. In the sympathetic portion of the ANS the axons of the visceral motor goes thru the _____ _____ ___and leaves and goes to the ___ _____ _______, and enters the ____ ____
    • spinal nerve proper
    • white ramus communicates
    • chain ganglia
  60. After the axon of the neuron of the sympathetic ans has reached the chain ganglia what 3 things can happen?
    • 1. if below diaphram goes thru chain ganglia and enter coelom to from the splantic nerve and go to collateral ganglion to synapse with post.
    • 2. In ganglion synapse with post symp. The post then return to spinal nerve to make up gray ramus communicates.
    • 3. in chain ganglia it can go up or down and synapse with post of different ganglia
  61. What are the two divisons of the Pituitary glands?
    • Adenohypophysis
    • neurohypophysis
  62. The pituitary gland hangs from the hypothalamus by what?
  63. What are the 6 hormones of the adenohypophysis
    • 1. Somatotropin (growth h)
    • 2. Thyrotropin (Thyriod stimulating h)
    • 3. Corticotropin (Adrenalcorticotropic ATCH)
    • 4. Folliculotropin(Follicle Stimulating h)
    • 5. Luteotropin (Luteninzing h LH)
    • 6. Protactin (PRL)
  64. What are the 3 collateral ganglion
    • 1. Celiac
    • 2. Superior Mesenteric
    • 3. Inferior Mesenteric
  65. What does convergence and divergence allow for?
    mass activation
  66. Adrenal gland is divdied into what 2 parts?
    cortex on the outside and medulla on the inside
  67. Cortex is made of and what does it secrete?
    • mesoderm
    • corticosteriods
  68. The A. medulla is made from what?
    neural crest
  69. What part of the Adrenal gland is inervated by symp. pre.gang. neurons?
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Bio460 (2)
bio 460 exam 2