1. Critical thinking about research involves
    • looking for design flaws such as confounding.
    • making informed judgements
  2. Sources ofideas include
    • observation
    • experts
    • literature search
  3. Testable hypotheses specify
    • how variables will be measured
    • how variables will be related
  4. Control inadvertent researcher effects by;
    • following a protocol for uniform treatment
    • using double blind study
    • being alert for a placebo effect and anthropomorphizing
  5. Methods of fixing belief include
    • authority
    • tenacity
    • a priori
    • scientific
  6. The scientific method involves
    Deduction - reasoning from general to specific cases

    Induction - reasoning from specific to general cases

    Strng Inference - eliminating possible alternative explanations
  7. Hypotheses come from generalizations. Generalizations are either;
    inductive - derived from experience

    Deductive - derived from theory
  8. A theoru;
    • organizes data
    • predicts new research
  9. Good theories are;
    • parsimonious
    • precise
    • testable
  10. Naturalistic observation is refined by ________ and by _______.
    • Ethograms
    • delimiting observation categories
  11. Interobserver reliability assesses;
    whether 2 or more observers agree on how to ccategorize naturalistic observations
  12. Case studies suffer from;
    an inability to determine what causes what
  13. Advantages of descriptive observations include
    • being an important source of basic knowledge
    • flexibility
    • ethological approach
    • ethological validity
  14. Descriptive observations may suffer from;
    • lack of reproducibility
    • anthropomorphizing
    • internal validity
    • participant reactivity
  15. Predictive Validity relates;
    one measure of behavior to another, criterion measure
  16. ________ ______ refers to the extent to which the variables accurately reflect of measure the behaviorofinterest
    Construct validity
  17. Operational definitions and protocols help minimize;
    construct invalidity resulting from error
  18. ______ ______ refers to the extent to which the obsevations can be generalized to other settings and dubject populations
    external validity
  19. Confounding is a major threat to internal validity, because;
    the causal variable(s) cannot be determined
  20. Reliability refers to;
    the consistency of the measures of behavior
  21. Test reliability if determined by the
    • test-retest method
    • parallel forms method
    • split half method
  22. Statistical reliability determines;
    whether findings are the result of chance
  23. Stratified sampling is a good alternative to
    random sampling
  24. Meta-analysis can help determine;
    the external validity of a particular observation, its relative strength, and its consistency
  25. Theoretical contructs are _______ variables.
  26. Psychometrics determines;
    difference and absolute thresholds
  27. A summated rating scale is the sum;
    of the ratings that people give to attitude statements
Card Set
Concept Summaries test 1