What is the illusory correlation? How does it relate to the importance of research?
- Illusory Correlation - focus on two events that stand together, natural but not scientific
- Relates to the importance of research - requires much more evidence before conclusions can be drawn
Define skepticism, empiricism, and falsifiability
- Skepticism - ideas that must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic, and scientific investigations
- Empiricism - Knowledge is based on observations and date
- Empiricism - use of objective observations to answer a question about the nature of behavior
- falsifiability - the principle that a good scientific idea or theory should be capable of being shown to be false when tested using scientific methods
- falsifiability - good scientific ideas can tested and proven false
What is peer review and why is it necessary?
- Peer Review - important component of the scientific method
- Can Catch mistakes in one's work
- Peer Review - the process of judging the scientific merit of research through review by peers of the researcher - other scientists with the expertise to evaluate the research.
What are the GOALS OF SCIENCE?
- Describe behavior
- Predict the Behavior
- Determine the cause of behavior
- Understand or explain behavior
What is a Research Question?
Does not have a prediction in it, it's just a question
What is a hypothesis?
- Hypothesis - Prediction about behavior
- Hypothesis - A statement that makes an assertion about what is true in a particular situation; often, a statement asserting that two or more variables are related to one another
null and alternative hypotheses, directional and non-directional hypothesis
- Null Hypothesis - the hypothesis, used for statistical purposes, that the variables under investigation are not related in the population, that any observed effect based on sample results us due to random error.
- Alternative Hypothesis -
- Directional Hypothesis - A specific question outcome and belief on how they go together (as CB increases, the child's behavior will likely decrease)
- Non-directional Hypothesis - Not expecting a certain outcome
What are the terms that are used to refer to people who participate in research?
- Informants (sometimes parents or teachers, sometimes the participants) - gives information about the participants (adult for the child)
- Respondents (often used in survey or interview research) - a study or an interview
How do researchers come up with ideas to study?
- Common Sense - common knowledge
- Observation about the world around you
- Past Research
- Practical Problems
What is a research theory? what does it do for researchers?
- Definition: organize and explain a variety of specific facts or descriptions of behavior
- Provides a framework for ideas
- Difference between Scientific theories and everyday theories
List and describe the sections in a research article.
- Info about hypothesis
- General results
- Description of the problems to be studied
- Past Research
- Formal Hypothesis
- Logical connections between past research and hypothesis in current research
- Makes the study replicable
Results: Findings presented in 3 ways
- Description in narrative form
- Statistical Evidence
- Tables and graphs
- Hypothesis supported
- Comparison with past research
- Future directions
What are the relative contributions of nature and nurture?
- Twin Studies - 2 types, identical twins raised in two environments and identical twins compared to fraternal twins or siblings
- Adoption studies - 2 main types, parents compared to the biological children and adoptive children, adoptive children compared to biological parents and adoptive parents.
- Gradual, quantitative, changes in skills and abilities
- Small Changes
abrupt qualitative changes, larger, shifts in skills and abilities
Is development Universal?
- Universal - all children develop the same - walking, talking, language
- Cultural - development is dependent on the culture
- Individual Differences - development is different for each person