1. What two major types of disorders did Kraeplin propose, and what did he believe?
    1) dementia praecox (similar to schizophrenia)

    2) manic depressive psychosis

    He believed that syndromes were seperate from one another and that each syndrome has unique causes, symptoms, and outcomes.
  2. What term defines the small gap that exists between neurons?
    A synapse.
  3. What are neurotransmitters?
    Chemical msgs that allow info. to cross the synapse.
  4. What is reuptake?
    A process in which unused neurotransmitters are reabsorbed and recycled.
  5. Explain the 7 steps of a neurotransmitter (NT) pathway.
    1) Synthesis of neurotransmitter and formation of vesicles.

    2) Transport of NT's down axon.

    3) Release of NT.

    4) Interaction of NT w/ receptor, exciting & inhibiting post-synaptic neuron.

    5) Seperation of NT molecules from receptors.

    6) Reuptake of NTs to be recycled.

    7) Vesicles w/o NTs transport back to cell body.
  6. What are the two basic building blocks of neurons?
    Function: Electrical

    Communication: Chemical
  7. Describe the 3 steps of the Corticol Progression development (cerebral hemispheres)
    1) Begins w/ 2 cerebral hemispheres.

    2) Growth of 2 hemispheres into "C" shape.

    3) Ends folds on the surface.
  8. What is multiple sclerosis?
    A disease in the CNS characterized by degeneration of white matter.
  9. Name the three parts of the brainstem.
    1) Cerebellum

    2) Pons

    3) Medulla

  10. What does the Medulla (brainstem part) regulate?
    1) Heart rate

    2) Blood pressure

    3) Respiration
  11. What does the Pons (brainstem) regulate?
    Regulates sleep stages.
  12. What does the Cerebellum (brainstem) regulate?
    Physical coordination.
  13. Major structures of the cortex (cerebrum, forebrain). Name the gyruses and define what they control.

    (Locate on brain diagram, ch.2, slide 26)
    Precentral gyrus: Primary motor cortex

    Central sulcus:

    Postcentral gyrus:
    Primary somatosensory cortex.
  14. On the cerebrum, locate and define the 4 lobes (Neuroscience & brain structure).
    Frontal lobe: Planning of movements, recent memory; thinking & reasoning abilities.

    Parietal lobe:
    Body sensations; touch recognition.

    • Temporal lobe: hearing, advanced visual processing. *Long-term memory storage.
    • Occipital lobe: Vision.
  15. Divisions of the forebrain (cerebral cortex). Define what the forebrain controls, the two hemispheres and there controls.
    Forebrain: Sensory, emotional, and cognitive processing.

    verbal, math, logic

  16. what connects to the brain stem (forebrain connections)? THLB. Define what they control.

    (Locate where they are on slide 33).

    ~T,H, Pituitary Gland, Amygdala, Hippocampus
    Thalamus & Hypothalamus: Behavioral & emotional regulation.

    Limbic System:
    Emotions, basic drives, impulse control.

    Basal Ganglia:
    Motor activity.
  17. What is the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenalcortical Axis (HPA axis)?
    Integration of endocrine and nervous system.
  18. Describe Freud's Psychosexual stages, at what age, and the description.

    Oral: 0-1, mouth chief means of satisfaction.

    2-3, attention on defecation & urination.

    4-5, sexual organs prime source of satisfaction.

    6-12, Lack of overt sexual activity or interest.

    Puberty Onward,
  19. Describe the pathway of a defense mechanism.
    Conflicts btwn id, ego, superego--->Anxiety--->Reliance on defense mechanism.
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