Psych. approach

  1. Cognitive Therapy
    Cognitive Therapy

    is a type of psychotherapy based on the concept of pathological mental processing. The focus of the tx is on the modification of distorted cognitions and maladaptive behaviors.
  2. Principle 1
    Principle 1

    Cognitive therapy is based on an everevolving formulation of the client and his problems in cognitive terms.
  3. Principle 2
    Principle 2

    Cognitive therapy requires a sound therapeutic alliance. A trusting relationship bwt therapist and client must exist for it to succeed.
  4. Principle 3
    Principle 3

    Cognitive therapy emphasizes collaboration and active participation. Teamwork bwn therapist & client.
  5. Principle 4
    Principle 4

    Cognitive therapy is goal oriented & problem focused. The client is encouraged to identify what he percieves to be the problem.
  6. Principle 5
    Principle 5

    Cognitive therapy initially emphasizes the present. Its more benefit to begin with current problems and delay shifting attention to the past.
  7. Principle 6
    Principle 6

    Cognitive therapy is educative, aims to teach the client to be his own therapist, & emphasizes relapse prevention. The client is taught about the nature & course of his disorder.
  8. Principle 7
    Principle 7

    Cognitive therapy aims to be time limited.
  9. Principle 8
    Principle 8

    • Cognitive therapy sessions are structured. This format focuses attention on what is important & maximizes the use of therapy.
    • Ex: reviewing the clients week, discussing weeks agenda.
  10. Principle 9
    Principle 9

    Cognitive therapy teaches clients to identify, evaluate, and respond to their dysfuncitonal thoughts and beliefs.
  11. Principle 10
    Principle 10

    Cognitive therapy uses a variety of techniques to change thinking, mood, and behavior.
  12. Automatic thoughts
    Automatic thoughts

    are those that occur rapidly in response to a situation and without rational analysis. These thoughts are often negative and based on erroneous logic.
  13. Arbitrary Inference
    Arbitrary Inference

    the individual automatically comes to a conclusion about an incident without the facts to support it, or even sometimes despite contradictory evidence to support it.
  14. Example of Arbitrary Inference
    Example of Arbitrary Inference

    Two months ago Mrs. B sent a wedding gift to the daughter of an old friend. She has not yet received acknowledment of the gift. Mrs. B thinks, "they obviously think i have poor taste"
  15. Overgeneralization (Absolutistic Thinking)
    Overgeneralization (Absolutistic Thinking)

    conclusions made based on one incident-a type of "all or nothing" kind of thinking.
  16. Example of Overgeneralization (Absolutistic Thinking)
    Example of Overgeneralization (Absolutistic Thinking)

    Frank submitted an article to a nursing journal and it was rejected. Frank thinks, "no journal will ever be interested in anything i write."
  17. Dichotomous Thinking
    Dichotomous Thinking

    views situations in terms of all or nothing, black or white, or good or bad.
  18. Example of Dichotomous Thinking
    Example of Dichotomous Thinking

    Frank submits an article to a nursing journal and the editor returns it and asks Frank to rewrite parts of it. Frank thinks, "im a bad writer" instead of recognizing tha revisions is a common part of the publication process.
  19. Progressive Relaxation
    Progressive Relaxation

    a method of deep-muscle relaxation
  20. Mental Imagery
    Mental Imagery

    uses imagination in an effort to reduce the body's response to stress.
  21. Biofeedback

    is the use of instrumentation to become aware of processes in your body that you usually do not notice & to help bring them under voluntary control.
  22. The degree of anxiety that an individual experiences in response to stress is related to certain predisposing factors such as :
    tempreament with which he was born, past experiences resulting in learned patterns of responding, and existing conditions such as health status, coping strategies, and adequate support systems.
  23. Risk Factors for Suicide
    • Marital Status
    • Gender
    • Age
    • Religion
    • Socioeconomic Status
    • Ethnicity
  24. Sociological Theory
    Sociological Theory

    • Egoistic suicide
    • Altruistic suicide
    • Anomic suicide
  25. Egoistic suicide
    Egoistic suicide

    is the response of the individual who feels separate & apart from the mainstream of society.(excluded from group)
  26. Altruistic suicide
    Altruistic suicide

    the individual is excessively integrated into a group. Alliange is so strong that the individual will sacrifice his life for the group. (military, suicide bombers)
  27. Anomic suicide
    Anomic suicide

    occurs in response to changes that occur in an individual's life(divorce,loss of job) that disrupts feelings of relatedness to the group.
  28. Unconditioned response
    Unconditioned response

    automatic (when the dog began to salivate when they began to eat the food that was offered to them)
  29. Conditioned response
    Conditioned response

    Learned response (the dogs began to salivate when the food came into their range of view, before it was even presented to them for consumption.)
  30. Positive reinforcement
    Positive reinforcement

    increases the probability that the behavior will recur
  31. Negative reinforcement
    Negative reinforcement

    increasing the probability that a behavior will recur by removal of an undesirable reinforcing stimulus.
  32. Premack Principle
    Premack Principle

    ex:Jennie has been neglecting her homework, she spends a lot of time on the phone, allow her to talk on the phone only after she's done her hmwk.

  33. Overt Sensitization
    Overt Sensitization

    ex:disulfiram (antabuse) is a drug that is given to individuals who wish to stop drinking alcohol. If alcohol is comsumed symptoms of severe nausea & vomiting, dyspnea,palpitations, headache will occur.
  34. Covert Sensitization
    Covert Sensitization

    the individual learns, through mental imagery, to visualize nauseating scenes & even to induce a mild feeling of nausea.
  35. Antidepressants

    elevate mood & alleviate other symptoms associated with moderate-to-severe depression. Tricyclics
  36. Lithium
    Lithium (mood stabilizer)

    carbonate is widely used as a mood-stabilzing agent. If left untreated, lithium toxicity can be life-threatening.
  37. Antipsychotic Drugs
    Antipsychotic Drugs

    are used in the treatment of acute & chronic psychoses.
  38. Antiparkinsonian Agents
    Antiparkinsonian Agents

    used to counteract the extrapyramidal symptoms associated with antipsychotic meds. They may also cause sedation & orthostatic hypotension.
  39. Sedative-hypnotics

    are used in the management of anxiety states & to treat insomnia.

  40. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
    Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

    contraindicated for individuals with increased intracranial pressure, severe osteoporosis, acute chronic pulmonary disorders, & high risk or complicated pregnancy.
  41. Succinylcholine

    is administed to client to relax muscles
  42. Atropine Sulfate
    Atropine Sulfate

    is administed to client to decrease secretions.
  43. ECT is thought to effect a therapeutic response by
    • ECT is thought to effect a therapeutic response by
    • increasing the levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
Card Set
Psych. approach
Psych. approach