1. Learning
    a process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of a past experience
  2. 3 types of learning

    • Classical conditioning - associating stimuli
    • Operant conditioning - associating behaviors and consequences
    • Observational learning - imitating the actions of others
  3. Pavlo's discovery
    • Pavlo discovered c.c by observing a dog start to salivate before food was put on it's togue.
    • He rang the bell, gave the dog food until just the sound of the bell produced the dog to salivate
  4. Unconditioned stimulus
    natural stimulus that reflexively produces a response without prior learning (food)
  5. Unconditioned response
    Unlearned, reflexive response (saliva)
  6. Neutral stimulus
    Bell ringing
  7. Conditioned stimulus
    originally neutral but comes to elicit a reflexive response (bell)
  8. Conditioned response
    learned reflexive response to a previously neutral stimulus (salivating at the bell)
  9. Factors that influence strength of c.c
    • 1. More frequently the c.s and the u.s were paired, the stronger the association
    • 2. Timing - if c.s was presented immediatly before the u.s, the stronger the association 1/2 second = optimum
  10. Generalization
    When stimuli that are similar to the original c.s also elicit the c.r (sound of low-pitched tone)
  11. Extinction
    If the c.s (bell) was presented without the u.s (food) the c.r (salivating at the bell) gradually declined
  12. Spontaneous recovery
    reappearance of a previously extinguisted c.r over a period of time with out exposure to the c.s
  13. Watsons views
    • watson viewed/emphasized the study of behavior rather than the study of subjective mental processes
    • - thought that all human behavior was due to conditioning and learning- nothing was inherited
  14. Lil albert study
    • watson and rosalie rayner classically conditioned lil albert to fear rats by presenting him with a rat then immediatly banging a loud noise behind him. After just 7 pairings, the rat alone caused him fear.
    • - unethical due to them not "extinguishing" his fear of rats also involved other furry animals and certain textures. Modified him throughout his life

    • Neutral stimulus - rat
    • Unconditioned stimulus - loud noise
    • unconditioned response - provoked fear
  15. drugs
    • if specific enviromental cues are repeatedly paired with a drugs administration, they can become conditioned stimulii
    • - smell of coffee can cause alertness
  16. John Garcia
    • Taste aversions - classically conditioned dislike for and avoidance of a particular food that develops when an organism become ill after eating it.
    • - experimented with givingt rats flavored h2o then injecting them with a drug that made them sick hours later
    • - against c.c because of the time (response may occur hours after stimulus) and the amount of pairing (usually only 1 time)
  17. Law of effect
    learning principle by edward thorndike that responses followed by a satisfying affect become strengthened and are more likely to recur in a particular situation, responses followed by a dissatisfying affect are weakened and less likely to occur
Card Set
ch 5