1. Why should wildlife managers study wildlife diseases?
    • - may serve as reservoirs or as vectors for pathogens that ultimately affect each other or humans
    • - density of wildlife populations
    • - diseases may cause serious losses to already small populations
    • - diseases are a part of the whole spectrum of issues facing wildlife managers
  2. What are the causes of diseases?
    • - Instrinsic flow (hereditary or congenital diseases)
    • - Deficiency diseases
    • - Exogenous poisons
    • - Living organisms
    • - Viruses
  3. Deficiency diseases
    • inadeqaute nutrients in the diet
    • poor quality diet
    • interference with intake, absorption of nutrients, and storage and use of nutrients
    • increased excretion
    • increased dietary requirements associated with pregnancy or lactation
    • inhibition of nutrients by inhibitors
  4. Exogenous poisons
    • cause local injury to tissues
    • destruction of epithelial cells in the kidney or liver after absorption
    • upset metabolic and functional activities
  5. Living organism diseases
    • Metazoan parasites
    • Pathogenic protozoa
    • Bacteria
    • Fungi
    • Viruses (hear about the most)
  6. What are the implications of wildlife diseases on human health?
    • Lyme Disease
    • The Plague
    • Rabies
    • Anthrax
    • Chronic wasting disease
  7. Lyme Disease (what is the first host?)
    • Persistant
    • 1st host is small mammals
  8. The Plague (reservoir? Change of getting to humans)
    • Reservoir in small mammals (fleas)
    • Small chance to humans
  9. How is Chronic Wasting Disease transmitted?
    Contact to contact
  10. Aldo Leopold
    Big advocate of predator control
  11. Predator
    An animal that survives by killing and eating other animals
  12. What are the two modes of protection of prey?
    • Hiding (camoflage)
    • Defense (prey fight back)
  13. Where is the energy spent for predators?
    • Large investment of time and effort per prey item
    • Make kills very infrequently
    • (lots of energy used)
  14. Evolutionary significance of prey and predators?
    A steady strengthening of the genetic heritage of the survivors within a prey population
  15. Lotka and Volterra (what controls prey population?)
    • There is a lag for predators
    • Resources/habitat of prey control prey population
  16. Huffaker
    • Used organs and herbivore mites
    • Population fluctuated widely
    • When predators introduced caused extinction
    • Complex environment
    • Prey able to disperse ahead of predators
  17. Errington
    • Social interactions within muskrat populations
    • Mink predator = high when muskrat population = high
    • “walking corpses” (will eventually die of something else)
    • Social interactions in crowded populations = limit prey (more than predation)
    • Total effect of predation cannot be found by counting number of animals killed by prey
    • Mortality factors such as disease, starvation and predations frequently compensatory rather than additive
  18. What are the two types of predator responses to prey density/distribution?
    • Functional Response
    • Numerical Response
  19. Functional Response
    • Predators to shift their diets toward an abundant of prey
    • Can occur without predator increase and takes more time
  20. Numerical Response
    • The numbers of predators increase with an increase in the density of the prey population
    • Harder to measure than functional response
  21. To understand predation you must know…
    • Density of prey population
    • Density of the predator population
    • Characteristics of the prey (ex avoid getting eaten)
    • Characteristics of the predator
    • Abundance of buffer species or alternative food for the predator
  22. When understanding predation, what must you know about the characteristics of the prey?
    • (ex. Avoid getting eaten)
    • Migration beyond the range of their main predator
    • Shift habitats to areas with poorer nutrition
    • Reduce risk by grouping together (very effective)
    • Isolation of female when they give birth
    • Birth Synchrony (everyone has young at the same time so the predator is full early)
  23. When understanding predation, what must you know about the characteristics of the predators?
    • Handling time
    • Search time
  24. Buffer species
    Secondary prey species which absorbs some predatory pressure when the primary prey numbers are low
  25. Facultative predators
    Consume other prey that allows a higher predator-prey ratio than if primary prey were the sole or primary food
  26. What are the factors that effect predation?
    • Complicated because the impact of predators on prey is complex
    • Limiting factors
    • Regulating factors
  27. Limiting factors on predation
    Both density-dependent and density-independent factors that reduce the rate of population growth
  28. Regulating factors on predation
    Only density-dependent factors are a subset of limiting factors
  29. What are the models that examine the role of predation in the population dynamic of ungulates (aka predatory-prey relationships)
    • Recurrent fluctuation hypothesis
    • Low Density Equilibria
    • Multiple Equilibria Hypothesis
    • Stable limit cycle hypothesis
  30. When did the federal government become involved in predator control? Why?
    • 1855
    • Pastoral communities have less problem with predators (they actually watched their cows)
    • Tried to deal with plague bearing rodents
  31. National Animal Damage Control Act
    • 1931
    • Every state follows this act
  32. Leopold Report
    • 1963
    • Evaluated idea of predator control
    • Lethal control not most important option (yet still an option)
    • When lethal control used, must be targeted
  33. Cain Report
    • 1972
    • Environmental awareness became more prevalent
    • Era of rebellion, photojournalists taking photos
    • Arial gunning
  34. What are some common situations where predator control is warranted?
    • Protection of T and E species
    • Reintroduction of T and E species
    • Protection of domestic livestock (predators will go into barns)
    • Increase game numbers
  35. When can predator control be successful?
    • To increase prey populations (when the prey population is below ecological niche)
    • If it has been correctly identified as the limiting factor
    • Control should be focused on a scale small enough to obtain results
  36. When should predator control be implemented?
    • It should occur just before predator or prey reproduction
    • Control efforts need to be severe enough to yield results
Card Set
Wildlife Management Test 2