Canine Abdomen 1a

  1. The descending duodenum is on what side of the abdomen?
  2. List the parts of the small and large intestine?
    • Sm: duodenum, jejunum, ileum
    • Lg: cecum colon (ascending, transverse and descending)
    • Rectum and anal canal
  3. On what side is the cecum located?
    Right side
  4. To what are species diffferences in the large intestine due?
    Modifications in the ascending colon
  5. What is the opening of the ileum into the colon (not cecum)?
    ileocolic (ileal) opening
  6. What is the course of the transveres colon in all domestic species?
    right to left craial to root of mesentery
  7. On which side of the animal is the descending colon?
    left, often called the left colon
  8. Where do the anal sacs open?
    4 and 8 oclock
  9. Where is the liver located
    cranial abdomen abutting diaphragm almost completely intrathroacic
  10. The renal impression is in which liver lobe>?
    caudate lobe (caudate process), on the right
  11. What ligament attaches the liver to the stomach?
    lesser omentum
  12. The common bile duct enters the duodenum at the _ along with the _ duct?
    major duodenal papillae, pancreatic duct
  13. List the parts of the pancreas and their locations?
    right limb, mesoduodenum, body: near pylorus; left limb: deep leaf greater omentum
  14. Where is the dorsal end of the spleen located? Ventral?
    on left (fixed to greater curvature), variable
  15. What is the elongated area of the spleen where vessels enter?
  16. What arteries pass from the spleen to the fundus of the stomach?
    short gastic arteries
  17. what is an easy way to remember which kidney is more cranial or caudal?
    right renal impression of liver or let is left behind
  18. what is the expanded proximal end of the ureters?
    renal pelvis
  19. where does urine drip from kidney?
    renal crest
  20. which species has capsular veins on the outside of its kidneys
  21. what parts of the renal pelvis surrounds the pseudopapillae
    pelvic recesses and diverticulae
  22. How do the ureters pass through the bladder wall and why
    oblique angle to prevent the backflow
  23. Where is the trigone of the urinary bladder?
    dorsal internal area between the two ureteral openings and opening of the urethra
  24. What is a serous membrane?
    a thin, continuous membrane living a closed cavity of the body and covering its organs
  25. Name the serous membranes of the pericardium, thorax, abdomen and vaginal process
    serous pericardium, pleura, peritoneum and vaginal tunic
  26. what serous membrane covers the walls of a cavity
  27. What serous membrane covers an organ. Also called serosa
    visceral peritoneum often just called serosa or peritoneum
  28. What serous membrane connects parietal and visceral or visceral with visceral serosa
  29. List three different types of peritoneum
    parietal visceral and connecting
  30. list three or four types of connecting peritoneum
    mesenteries omenta ligaments and folds
  31. What peritoneum connects the liver and the ventral abdominal wall
    falciform ligament
  32. how many layers are in the different classifications of peritoneum
    parietal and visceral- 1 connecting -2
  33. what is the peritoneal cavity
    potential space between pareital and visceral peritoneum
  34. What does retroperitoneal mean?
    behind the peritoneum
  35. What are the two layers of the greater omentum
    superficial and deep layers
  36. What is the opening into the omental bursa from the peritoneal cavity
    epiploic or omental foramen
  37. How are the mesentaries named?
    meso + organ connected
  38. what is the root of the mesentery?
    attachement of the mesentery to the dorsal abdomen
  39. Name the 3 main unpaired branches of the abdominal aorta?
    celiac, cranial and caudal mesenteric
  40. What do the celiac cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries supply
    viscera drained by portal vein
  41. What are the three branches of the celiac artery?
    hepatic splenic and left gastric
  42. how do the jejunal aa terminate to supply the jejunum
    they form arcades and vasa recti to the jejunum
  43. What vessles supply the fundus of the stomach?
    short gastric arteries from splenic a
  44. How are the ovarian arteries located?
    lift up ovary and look for vessels in the mesoovarium
  45. How are the testicular aa located in the abdomen
    passing caudal to the kidney to vaginal ring
  46. What vein carries the blood from the abdominal visera to the liver
    portal vein, hepatic portal vein
  47. What are the primary abdominal organs not drained by the portal vein
    kidneys adrenal glands gonads and liver
  48. Why arent the kidneys, adrenals and gonads drained by the portal vein?
    Their hormones would be destroyed by the liver
  49. Where does the left gonadal vein empty?
    into the left renal v instead of crossing aorta to the vena cava
  50. What lympathic vessels drains the lymph from the cisterna chyli that drains the caudal animal
    thoracic duct
  51. To which lymph node does the lymph drain to form the caudal and cranial mammae
    ca = superficial inguinal , cr= axillary
  52. What are the large lymph nodes beneath the termination of the aorta
    medial iliac lymph nodes
  53. what are the intestinal lympathic vessels that absorb fat
  54. What direction do the ventral branches of the spinal nerve travel
    caudoventral direction
  55. What supplies cutaneous inn to the top of the throacic and abdominal walls
    both dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal nn in the throacic and lumbar region
  56. Where are the collateral ganglia of the sympathetic division located?
    near branches of the abdominal aorta
  57. what gland is part of the sympathetic ans
    adrenal glands (medulla)
  58. What are standing lateral views using a horizontal bean direction through a standing animal used to detect
    fluid in the bowel or abdomen
  59. on what does peritoneal or serosal detail depend
    serosal fat around the organs
  60. What is the term for an abdomen with an overall gray appearance due to loss of serosal detail
    ground glass appearance
  61. What is the use of opaque media (positive contrast agents) or gas (negative contrast agents) to delineate portions of th GI tract called?
    contrast studies
  62. What must always precede all contrast studies?
    Survey radiographs
  63. Name one structure that normally is in the left caudal quadrant
    descending colon
  64. Which sides of the diaphragm can be seen in radiographs
    • yes : cranial surface (lungs)
    • no: caudal surface (water density against it)
  65. Where are the parts of the stomach located in VD and lateral films?
    • fundus VD: left, lat: dorsal
    • -body : vd midline in dogs left in cats
    • pylorus dv right in dogs midline in cats
    • Lat: ventral
  66. Where is air likely to be seen in the stomach in a radiograph taken in right lateral recumbency? left view?
    • right: fundus (left side up, fundus is up)
    • left : pylorus
  67. Where would gas be expected in the stomach in a DV view and VD
    • DV: fundic region (dorsal up)
    • VD: pylorus
  68. What is the normal stochas axis in the lateral projection?
    Btw the lines vertical to spine and parallel to the ribs
  69. What is the stomach axis used for clinical applications?
    evaluate the size of the liver
  70. What is the use of air and contrast material within an organ called
    double contrast studies (applies to bladder also)
  71. How would you precisely locate a radiopaque foreign body to the stomach?
    take 2 radiographs at ninty degrees of eachother (lateral and VD)
  72. Waht does full 360 gastric dilation and volvuls look like on a lat radiograph?
    enlarged fas filled stomach with a fold dividing the stomach into dorsal and ventral compartments (fold in volvulus)
  73. What is a large distended loop of sm intestine, named because they indicate trouble?
    sentinel loop
  74. what is the shape and location of the cecum in a VD
    "C" corkscrew shape, right side level of L3 and seen only if air filled
  75. Is the descending colon seen in VD and lateral survey films?
    yes if filled with fecal material
  76. What structures may be surmised to be enlarged in lat radiographs by ventral displacement of the descending colon
    medial iliac lymph nodes
  77. Linear foeign bodies in the small intestine such as a string will cause the bowel to _ on the string due to peristalsis
    bunch up/ plicated or accordian pleating very apparent with contrast study
  78. What should you do if you see a string hanging out either end of a cat or dog?
    do not pull or it may saw through bunched up bowels (peritonitis) surgically remove
  79. In normal adult dogs on a expiratory abdominal radiograph the liver usually doesnt extend past the last _
  80. How is the stomach axis positioned in a lateral film when there is an enlarged liver
    exceeds angle parallel to ribs
  81. Why is the cranial pole of the right kidney not visualized in a lateral radiograph
    in renal impression of liver: same density
  82. Where is the spleen seen in VD and lateral radiographs
    • VD : triangular water density caudal to the stomach on the left
    • RT Lat: triangle
  83. What causes a focal loss of detail to the right cranial abdomen
  84. What part of the right kidney cannot be seen normally
    cranial pole is embedded in the liver
  85. Where is the left kidney in relatiobnship to the right kidney
    1/2 kidney length caudal and slightly ventral
  86. On what does visualization of the renal borders depend
    amount of perirenal fat present
  87. Are the ureters visible on survey radiographs
  88. What structure of the renal pelvis shows up in contrast studies of the kidney that can give clues to problems
    pelvic diverticula/ recesses
  89. What are the four quadrants of the abdomen
    • r/l cranial
    • r/l caudal
  90. What is the lateral part of the middle region of the abdomen
  91. Where are the inguinal regions
    lateral abdominal area next to junction with thigh
  92. What is the doral part of the flank region
    paralumbar fossa
  93. Where is the fundus of the stomach located
    left cranial and dorsal abdomen
  94. what structure are easy keys to visualizing the location of other abdominal structures
    descending duodenum on the right side
  95. how many mammae are generally present in the bitch? cat?
    ten in dogs, 8 in cats and small dogs
  96. what are extra mamary glands called?
    supernumerary mammary glands
  97. generally where do the mammary glands lymphatics drain
    caudal: superficial inguinal ln; cranial to the axillary ln and also accessory axillary if present -sternal
  98. list the abdominal muscles from superficial to deep
    • external abbdominal oblique
    • internal abdominal oblique
    • transversus abdominis
    • rectus abdominis (ventrally)
  99. What is a flat thin tendon called?
  100. What is the caudal free edge of the aponeurosis of the EAO extending from the tuber coxae around the iliopsoas mm to the prepubic tendon
    inguinal ligament
  101. what is the rectus sheath
    aponeuroses of the abdominal mm around the rectus abdominis m, meet and fuse at the linea alba
  102. which rectus sheath is most clinically nb
    external rectus sheath
  103. what passes through the opening of the diaphragm
    • Aortic- aorta azygous cisterna chyli, thoracic duct
    • Esophageal- esophagus, ventral and dorsal vagus
    • Caval foramen- caudal vena cava
  104. What is the motor innervation of the diaphragm
    phrenic nerve
  105. how does the cavity of the bony throax relate to the throacic cavity
    larger, dome of the diaphragm extends into bony thorax to 6th intercostal space (encases the abdomen)
  106. what is the intrathroacic part of the abdominal cavity
    cranial part, protected by caudal ribs and costal cartilages
  107. what is a directional term for a part of further from and closer to the mouth
    aborad and closer is orad
  108. what are the two named curvatures of the stomach
    greater and lesser
  109. what is the muscular sphincter surrounding the stomach's outflow
  110. list the parts of the stomach
    cardia fundus body pylorus (antrum, pylorus and opening)
  111. what is the least vascular part of the stomach
    body between the two curvatures
  112. What side of the animal is the pylorus? fundus?
    • right and ventral
    • fundus is left and dorsal
  113. which is more ventral the fundus or the pylorus of the stomach?
  114. What is a protrusion of an organ or tissue through the umbilicus?
    umbilical hernia
  115. What is a direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
    • Direct: explodes directly though the wall
    • Indirect: passes down inguinal canal (scotal herniation)
  116. What is paracentesis?
    puncture of the peritoneal cavity to remove fluid
  117. Define a laparotomy or celiotomy incision?
    an incision opeing the abdomen
  118. What is done with a falciform ligament that obsures the view of the abdomen?
  119. What structures can be visualized through a xiphoid to pubic laparotomy incision without manipulation and their location?
    • cranial : falciform ligament
    • middle: greater omentum
    • and plus or minus the tail of the spleen
    • Caudal: bladder
  120. Where is the spleen located when doing a laparotomy incision?
    Left side or across midline. - tent wall when opening the abdomen
  121. What is an incision into the abdomen just off the midline
    paramedian incision
  122. What is the most important layer that must be opposed when closing a paramedian midline incision?
    External rectus sheath
  123. What is an abdominal incision made in the paralumbar fossa
    paralumbar incision, flank incision
  124. What must be blocked to anesthetize the paralumbar fossa of the large animal flank?
    both the dorsal and ventral branches must be blocked
  125. What type of restraint is used for small animal flank surgery?
    general anesthesia instead of local (easier )
  126. What is a common sequela to peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum)
    adhesions between sheets of peritoneum
  127. Visualize what is seen through a long midline incision?
    falciform ligament (cr), greater omentum and urinary bladder (ca) plus or minus the spleen
  128. Must the peritoneum be apposed when closing the ventral midline incision?
    no best to leave it alone
  129. Why must including the falciform ligament or its fat in the closure of the abdomen be avoided?
    May delay healing and contribute to wound dehiscence
  130. Define wound dihiscence
    splitting open (seperation of layers) of a surgical incision
  131. What is the most important structure to close in a midline incision?
    linea alba
  132. What is a common cause of diaphragmatic hernias?
    Tramas (car is number 1, fights, kicks, falls )
  133. How is a diaphragmatic hernia reached surgically?
    from abdominal side
  134. When opening the abdomen of a dog with a diaphragmatic hernia what must you be prepared to do?
    breath for dog as when the abdomen opened there will be a pneumothorax
  135. Is the peritoneum opposed when closing the abdomen?
    no less trama
  136. What is wound dehiscence
    separation of layers of a surgical wound
  137. What is paracentesis? abdominocentesis/abdominal puncture?
    surgical puncture of a cavity for aspiration of fluid; puncture of abdomen
  138. What is a common sequela to inflammation of the peritoneum
    adhesions between sheets of peritoneum
  139. Where is a gastromy performed in the stomach?
    Through body between 2 curvatures (less blood)
  140. What emergency twisting of the stomach occurs in large and giant breed dogs with deep chests and rarely occurs in small dogs
    gastric dilation/ vulvulus complex, bloat
  141. What common problem results in projectile vomiting?
    pyloric stenosis/ obstruction
  142. Where is the descending duodenem?
    right side
  143. What is intussusception?
    telescoping of a segment of the intestine into the lumen of an adjacent segment
  144. What is an incision into the intestines
  145. What structure identifies and locates the rest of the large and small intestines during an exploratory surgery?
  146. What is inflammation of the cecum?
  147. What is the surgical removal of the cecum?
  148. How are the "abdominal gutters" paravertebral gutters visualized?
    pull the duodenum and mesoduodenum or colon and mesocolon medially packing off the rest of the viscera
  149. How are plugged anal sacs treated?
    manually evacuation (gloved hand holds 4 by 4 gauze pushed forward cranially to the sacs squeeze in and pull caudally evacuating sac or gloved finger in anus with thumb lateral and deep to a sac squeeze and withdraw)
  150. What must be avoided when surgically removing the anal sacs?
    External anal sphincter and caudal rectal nn
  151. What are pathological tracts between rectum and skin surrounding the anus?
    rectocutaneous fistulas
  152. What is eversion of the inner rectum through the anus
    rectal prolapse
  153. What is the removal of part of the liver
    partial hepatectomy
  154. How is a liver biopsy taken in a dog?
    laparotomy caudal to the xiphoid process finger hold the liver in place, biopsy needle through a separate stab incision
  155. What is inflammation of the gall bladder?
  156. How is the right limb of the pancreas exposed during exploratory surgery?
    retract duodenum ventromedially
  157. How is the left lobe of the pancreas exposed surgically?
    retract stomach and spleen cranially and transvere colon caudally
  158. What is the removal of the spleen?
  159. How are the vessels ligated during a splenectomy and why?
    close to the hilus preserve short gastric and left gastroepiploic supply to the stomach
  160. What arteries to the stomach come off the splenic artery?
    short gastrics and left gastroepiploic aa
  161. How would you locate the adrenal gland during surgery?
    phrenicoabdominal v crosses it ventrally
  162. How do you visualize the kidneys during a laparotomy?
    Pull the descending colon and its mesocolon or the descending duodenum and its mesoduodenem medially and look in the abdominal gutter, for left and right kidneys respectively
  163. What is inflammation of the kidneys
  164. What structure of the renal pelvis shows up in contrast studies of the kidney that can give clues to problems?
    pelvic recesses
  165. What is the removal of a kidney? What should be checked first?
    Nephrectomy; check for another kidney
  166. What is an incision into a kidney?
  167. What is inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis
  168. What is patent urachus
    persistent urachus from the baladder to umbilicus
  169. What is a clincial sign of patent urachus
    dribbling of urine from the umbilicus
  170. What is an abdomal concretion in any part of the urinary system?
    urinary calculi
  171. What is FUS in tom cats?
    urinary tract disease characterized by dysuria and hematuria with or without obstruction
  172. What is the common site of urethral obstruction in the tomcat?
    penile urethra
  173. What is the creation of a permanent opeing for the urethra in the perineum, a common treatment for FUS
  174. What abnormal termination of a ureter some place besides the urinary bladder?
    ectopic ureter
  175. How is an ectopic ureter corrected?
    surgically reimplant ureter obliquely through the badder wall
  176. What is tapping the urinary bladder with a needle to remove urine?
  177. What is the # 1 iatrogenic ureteral injury occurring during a spay?
    ligature or clamp mistakenly applied to ureter
  178. What vessels have to be considered when opening the abdomen?
    cranial and caudal superficial epigastric vessels
  179. Where would you make an incision to open the stomach and why?
    between the curvatures, less vessels
  180. What artery is surgically important in operations of the cecum?
    large cecal aa hidden on the dorsal surface
  181. What must not be ligated when removing the spleen?
    short gastric and left gastroepiploic aa or artery supplying them?
  182. How are vessels ligated during a splenectomy and why?
    Close to hilus preserve short gastric and left gastroepiploic supply to the stomach
  183. Where is the largest aa (cecal) of the cecum located?
    hidden on the dorsal side of the cecum
  184. How is the intestine cut when doing a resection and anastomoses?
    angle cut towards lesion (antimesenteric >mesenteric side of removed piece)
  185. What arteries should surgeons watch for when doing nephrectomies?
    renal aa ; usually singular but double or triple are possible
  186. What vascualar incidence can cause paralysis of the rear limb of cats?
    saddle thrombus in caudal aorta, blocking external iliac aa
  187. What is the landmark for finding the adrenal glands?
    phrenicoabdominal v over ventral surface
  188. What is a portosystemic shunt
    splanchnic (visceral)circulation by pass normal hepatic system and empties into systemic veins
  189. What is the removal of one or more mammary glands?
  190. When wouldnt a mastectomy be performed on a mammary tumor?
    if distal lung metastasis present already
  191. What is a metastasis
    transfer of disease from 1 part of the body to another
  192. -ectomy
    removal of organ or part by surgery (ie hysterectomy)
  193. -ostomy
    surgically creating an artificial opening, between 2 hallow organs or btw a hollow organ and abdominal wall (trachostomy/trachotomy)
  194. -otomy
    surgical incision
  195. -plexy
    fixation (pyloroplexy)
  196. -plasty
    plasty- shaping or surgical formation of (rhinoplasty)
  197. How are the abdominal gutters exposed
    pull descending duodenem and mesoduodenum or colon and mesocolon medially
  198. What is the ileus
    obstruction of the intestines
  199. Can the liver be palpable in a normal dog?
  200. How is the descending colon palpated? When is this easiest?
    On the left side, when constipated
  201. Can the kidneys be palpated in the dog?
    in some dogs, right is more difficult
  202. How easy can the cats kidneys be palaped through the abdominal wall?
    usually left pendulous enough to palpate, right may also be palpated
  203. Is the urinary bladder palpable in the dog? cat?
  204. When can and cant the uterus be palpated?
    • cant/rarely: non pregnant bitch
    • pregnant- vesicle palpable ranging (marble to egg) at 25-35 days then horns uniformly enlarged: nonpalpable
  205. How is the superficial inguinal lymph node palpated?
    subcutaneously just craniomedial to the thigh
  206. How are plugged anal sacs treated?
    manually evacuation (gloved hand hold 4 by 4 gauze pushed forward cranial to the sacs, squeeze in and pull cuadally evacuating sac or gloved finger in anus, thumb lateral and deep to the sac, squeeze and withdraw)
  207. List 7 of the nine regions of the abdomen?
    xiphoid, rt and lt hypogastric are other rt and lt flank, umbilical rt and left inguinal, pubic
  208. What is the region of the abdomen just caudal to xiphoid cartilage?
    xiphoid region
  209. What is the region of the abdomen just caudal to the xiphoid cartilage?
    xiphoid region
  210. What is the fold of the flank?
    fold of skin from thigh to abdominal wall
  211. What are the three midline regions from crainal to caudal?
    xiphoid, umbilicus, prepubic
  212. List the main structures found in the left crainal quadrant?
    diaphragm, left liver lobes, fundus and body of the stomach, cranial pole of the left kidney, spleen and left limb of pancreas
  213. List structures crossing the midline between the left and right cranial quadrants?
    body of stomach, transverse colon, left limb of pancreas, liver and diaphragm
  214. What main structures are located in the right cranial quadrant
    diaphragm epiploic foramen, caudal lobe of liver , right lobe and body of pancrease, pylorus and plyloric antrum, descending duodenem, right adreanl, cranial lobe of the right kidney
  215. What major structures are located in the right caudal quadrants?
    descending duodenem, cecum, uterine horn, ovary, caudal pole of the right kidney, right ductus deferens, right vaginal ring, right ureter
  216. LIst the structures that cross the midline between left and right caudal quadrants?
    uterine body, urinary bladder, prostate -if enlarged, terminal branches of the aorta, caudal flexure of duodenum; ileum
  217. What main structures are found int he left caudal quadrant
    descending colon, left ureter, caudal mesenteric aa, mesocolon, left uterine horn and ovary, left ductus deferens, left vaginal ring, left ureter
  218. What are the names of the mammae in the bitch
    cranial and caudal thoracic, cranial and caudal abdominal and inguinal
  219. How do the mammae generally appear in the male
    rudimentary throughout life
  220. What spaces store milk in the mammary gland
    • lactiferous (milk) sinus (cistern) = glands
    • sinus and teat sinus
  221. What passage leads from the teat sinus to the outside?
    teat canal or papillary duct
  222. What are the openings on the nipple or papilla? number in dog?
    teat orifices, many per nipple
  223. What main vessels supply the mammary glands
    cranial and caudal superficial epigastric and lateral throacic aa and veins
  224. List the abdominal mm from superficial to deep
    EAO, IAO, TA, RA
  225. What is a flat think tendon called?
  226. What is the caudal free edge of the aponeurosis of the EAO extending from the tuber coxae around the iliopsoas muscle to the prepubic tendon?
    inguinal canal
  227. What is the rectus sheath?
    aponeurosis of the abdominal mm around the rectus abdominis mm, meet and fuse at the linea alba
  228. which rectus sheath is most clinically important
    external rectus sheath
  229. What is the musculoteninous partitition between the thorax and abdomen
    diaphragm (cranial boundary of the abdomen)
  230. What are the parts of the diaphragm
    outer : muscular part, inner-dorsal: crura and tendinous center
  231. List the openings through the diaphragm
    aortic, esophageal hiatuses, caval foramen
  232. Name the two sublumbar muscles
    psoas minor and major and quadratus lumborum
  233. What is the principal mm of inspiration
    the diaphragm
  234. What are the cranial and caudal boundaries of the abdominal cavity
    • cranially- the diaphragm
    • caudally - the pelvic inlet
  235. What is a directional term for a part frther from the mouth?
  236. What is the direction term for a part closer to the mouth
  237. Can an arad part be further caudally than an aborad part
    yes, example: cecum to transverse colon
  238. List the parts of the abdominal tubular GI tract from orad to aborad
    abdominal esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, rectum, anus
  239. What peritoneum connect the stomach and duodenum to the liver
    lesser omentum (hepatogastric and hepatoduodenal ligaments)
  240. What are the attachements of the greater omentum
    greater curvature and dorsal abdominal wall
  241. Name the longitudinal folds of the stomach mucosa
    gastric rugae or folds
  242. Where is the stomach located
    cranially behind the liver and depending on how full can extend half way between the xiphoid and the pubis
  243. Name the three divisions of the small intestine
    duodenum, jejunum, ileum
  244. What opens into the descending duodenum
    Common bile duct, pancreatic ducts and stomach
  245. Which part of the small intestine has the longest mesentery
    jejunum to give it great range of motion
  246. What connecting peritonums suspends the duodenum
    mesoduodenum and duodenocolic ligaments
  247. List the parts of the large intestine
    cecum colon rectum and anal canal
  248. What does the ileocecal fold connect
    ileum and cecum
  249. Name the three parts of the colon
    ascending transverse and descending
  250. Upon what does the anal continence depend on
    internal and external anal sphincters
  251. what is the end and terminal opening of the GI tract
    anal canal and anus
  252. what are the reservoirs for secretions opening into the carnivore's anus
    anal sacs (paranal sinuses)
  253. Where are the anal sacs in relationship to the anal sphincters
    between the internal and external anal sphincters
  254. What is the largest gland in the body
  255. what is the functional imput and exit of the liver
  256. name the four lobes of the liver
    right (medial and lateral) left (medial and lateral) quadrate, caudate (caudate and papillary processes)
  257. What is the vesige of the fetal umilical vein in the adult
    round ligament of the liver in the free edge of the falciform ligament
  258. what ligament of the liver originates from the coronary ligament and extends to the sternal part of the diaphragm
    falciform ligament
  259. Name the 4 ligaments attaching the liver to the diaphragm
    coronary, right and left triangular and falciform
  260. What structures stores and concentrates bile
    gall bladder
  261. What carries bile to and from the gall bladder
    cystic duct
  262. What vessel carries nutrient rich blood from the stomach intestines pancreas and spleen to the liver. What vessel carries oxygen to the liver
    • portal (hepatic portal) vein
    • hepatic artery
  263. What is the structural unit of the liver?
  264. The _ cells are arranged radially around the liver sinusoids
  265. What spaces bathe the hepatic cells
    liver sinusoids
  266. What small tubules collecting bile from the hepatic cells
    bile canaliculi
  267. Compare the direction of low in the liver sinusoids and bile canaliculi
    in opposite directions: blood towards caudal vena cava, bile towards porta
  268. What do the liver sinusoids form that join to form the hepatic vein
    central veins
  269. What funtional part of the pancreas does the pancreatic ducts drain
    exocrine part
  270. Where is the endocrine function of the pancreas carried out
    islet cells of the pancreas
  271. What is the exocrine function of the pancreas
    pancreatic enzymes aid in digestion
  272. What do the pancreatic ducts carry to the duodenum
    pancreatic enzymes
  273. With what two abdominal organs is the spleen closely associated with
    stomach and the greater omentum
  274. Of what does the serosa consist
    • layer of the mesothelium (simple squamous)
    • and connective tissue backing
  275. what is mesothelium
    epithelium of all the serous membranes
  276. what is the purpose of a serous membrane
    secrete fluid and decrease friction between the organs
  277. What serous membrane covers the walls of a cavity
  278. What is the connective tissue around an organ that is not on a body cavity called? What is it called if it is in a body cavity
    adventitia , serosa
  279. What do clinicians usually call the visceral serosa of an organ
    just serosa
  280. What serosa lines the abdomen and covers the organs
    peritoneum (epiploon)
  281. what does a fold of peritoneum connect
    2 visveral layers of peritoneum
  282. what is in the peritoneal cavity
    scant amount of fluid and no organs
  283. name two subdivisions of the peritoneal cavity
    ovarian bursa and omental bursa
  284. is the peritoneal cavity open to the outside of the animal
    yes in female (uterine tube) no in male
  285. what is a diverticulum of the peritoneal cavity
    vaginal cavity
  286. how are the pouches of the peritoneal cavity formed
    caudal reflections of peritoneum between organs of the pelvis
  287. list the three pouches of the peritoneum
    caudal reflections of peritoneum between organs of the pelvis
  288. list the three pouches of the peritoneum
    rectogenital, vesicogenital, pubovesical
  289. what is between the two leaves of the greater omentum
    omental bursa
  290. what does the lesser omentum connect
    liver to the lesser curvature of stomach and duodenum
  291. Give the location of the epiploic forament into the omental bursa
    ventromedial to caudate lobe or the liver between caudal vena cava and portal vein (and hepatic aa)
  292. Why is the omentum called the "policeman of the abdomen"
    helps wall off infection
  293. What are located in the free edges of the lateral ligaments of the urinary bladder
    round ligament of bladder or umbilical aa
  294. What is in the fee edge of the middle ligament of the bladder
    urachus or remnant of the urachus
  295. What connects the spleen and the stomach
    gastrosplenic ligament (part of greater omentum)
  296. what is the serosa is seen in the cranial end of a vetnral midline incision
    falciform ligament
  297. what is a mesentery
    connecting peritoneum between organs visceral peritoneum and parietal peritoneum
  298. what peritoneum suspends the duodenum
  299. what is the functions of mesenteries
    suspend organs and path for vessels and nerves to organ
  300. connecting peritoneum for :
    • meso ileum
    • mesorectum
    • mesocolon
    • mesojejunum or great mesentery
  301. Name the four unpaired branches of the abdominal aorta
    celiac and cranial and caudal mesenteric and median sacral aa
  302. what structures does the celiac aa supply
    cranial abdominal organs (stomach liver spleen and part of the duodenum)
  303. What main arteries send branches to the pancreas?
    Branches of celiac and cranial mesenteric aa (cranial and caudal pancreatioduodenal aa)
  304. What is the blood supply to the intestines
    cranial and caudal mesenteric aa
  305. what are the nuerous vessels to the jejunum
    jejunal aa from cranial mesenteric aa
  306. how does the splenic aa enter the spleen
    all along its long hilus
  307. what is the blood supply of the pancreas
    cranial ( from celiac) and caudal ( from cranial mesenteric) pancreaticoduodenal a and pancreatic branches ( from splenic)
  308. What arteris to the stomach come off the splenic aa
    short gastric and left gastroepiploic aa
  309. What evein returns blood to the heart from the abdomen, pelvis and pelvic limb
    caudal vena cava
  310. how is the caudal vena cava formed
    external and internal iliac vv unite = 2 common iliac vv which unite = caudal vena cava
  311. To where does the lymph fromt he pelvic limbs, pelvis and abdomen drain?
    cisterna chyli
  312. What lymphatic ducts drain the abdominal viscera of the lymph
    visceral lymphatic trunks
  313. What forms the cisterna chyli
    lumbar and visceral lymphatic trunks
  314. Where does the lymph drain to from the 4/5 and sometimes 3 caudal mammae
    superficial inguinal lymph nodes
  315. Where do the cranial three pairs of mammary glands mainly drain
    axillary lymph nodes
  316. What is/are the lymph nodes in the root of the mesentary
    jejunal lymph nodes
  317. What do the medial iliac lymph nodes drain? and to where do they drain
    • dorsal abdomen , pelvic and pelvic limb
    • drain to the lumbar trunks
  318. Where does the lymph from the mammary gland drain?
    • cranial and caudal thoracic- accessory axillary if present, axillary plus or minus the sternal node
    • cranial abdominal - either to axillary or superficial inguinal
    • caudal abdominal and inguinal - superfical inguinal
  319. To wehre do the superficial inguinal lypmph nodes drain
    medial iliac lymph nodes
  320. WHat are the diffuse lyphatic tissues in the mucosa of the intestines
    peyer's patches
  321. What nerves supply the abdominal wall
    thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves
  322. what lumbar nerve passes through the inguinal canal to supply the external genitalia
    genitofemoral n
  323. what is the sympathietic innervation to the abdomen? parasympathetic?
    sympathetic trunk, splanchnic nn, collateral ganglion and plexuses

    vagus: through transverse colon, pelvic n- descending colon
  324. What types of ganglion does the sympathetic divsion have?

    verterbral (chain) and collateral (near vessels)

    terminal ganglia in wall of organ innervated
  325. Where are the splanchnic nerves?
    connect the sympathetic trunk with collateral ganglia around the branches of the abdominal aorta
  326. What is the network of fibers around the collateral ganglia
    autonomic plexus
  327. What results from sympathetic stimulation of the adrenal glands
    norE dumped into bloodstream = massive sympathetic response
  328. Sympathetic fibers reach the pelvic cavity by which nerve
    hypogastric n from caudal mesenteric ganglion
  329. Summarize autonomic effects on the GI tract
    • parasympathetic : digests and stores food, eliminates waste;
    • sympathetic - shuts down above to deal wth stressful situations
  330. If sympathetic firing generally causes contraction of sphincters of the urinary and GI tract why may an animal eliminate itself when extremely frightened?
    generalized nervous system stimulation overrides sphincters
  331. Why does an animal eliminate itself when dead
    no sympathetic stimulation to sphincter to keep closed
  332. Where are the collateral ganglia of the sympathetic division located
    near branches of the abdominal aorta
  333. What gland is part of the sympathetic ANS
    adrenal gland (medulla)
  334. What is the spacial relationship of the two kidneys
    right a half a kindey length cranial to the left
  335. What is an easy way to remember which kidney is more cranially
    right fits into the renal impression of the liver
  336. What makes up the parenchyma of the kidneys
    outer cortex and inner medulla
  337. what is located in the cortex of the kidneys
    glomeruli, proximal and distal convoluted tubules
  338. What is located in the medulla of the kidneys
    collecting ducts and thin segments ( loops of henle)
  339. What is the indentation of the kidneys where the vessels enter
    renal hilus
  340. what tube carries urine from the kindeys to the urinary bladder?
  341. What is the longitudinal ridge projecting into the renal pelvis
    renal crest
  342. What are the parts of the urinary bladder
    neck body and apex
  343. what are 3 connecting peritoneums attach to the urinary bladder
    median/middle and 2 lateral ligaments of the bladder
  344. what paired glands are located granial to the kidneys
    adrenal glands
  345. To what system do the adrenal glands belong to
    sympathetic ANS and endocrine
  346. What do the adrenal glands do during great stress
    dump EPI into blood stream
  347. What is the connective tissue outer structure of the kidneys
    renal capusle, fibrous
  348. What variation in number of renal aa are seen in dogs
    multiple left renal aa seen in 13% most have a single right renal aa
  349. How are the Kidneys positioned in relationship to the peritoneum
    retroperitoneal, peritoneum only on ventral surface, no connecting peritoneum
  350. What is the microscopic functional unit of the kidney
  351. What non-nephrotic structure carries urine from the nephron to the renal pelvis
    collecting ducts
  352. what is the tuft of arterial capillaries associated with the glomerular capsule
  353. what is the double walled, cup shaped expanded proximal end to the renal tubule surroundign the glomerulus
    Glomerular (Bowman's ) capsule
  354. List the part of the tubular part of the nephron
    proximal convoluted tubule, thin segments ( loop of henle) distal convoluted tubule
  355. where do the collecting ducts open
    papillary ducts on the renal crest
  356. what is the structure unit of the kidneys
    renal pyramid/ renal lobe
  357. What are the standard views of the abdomen?
    Lateral and VD/DV views
  358. Which lateral view is preferred and why?
    right lateral over the left to avoid confusing gas in the fundus
  359. Is the VD or the DV abdominal view more commonly taken?
    VD usually
  360. How should you take a lateral radiograph of the abdomen to eliminate an additional variable?
    right or left lateral consistently
  361. How is abdominal film centered and what should be included?
    center the umbilicus, include entire abdomen (pelvic inlet to diaphragm)
  362. What term describes how well the abdomen structures are seen radiographically?
    Peritoneal detail
  363. Why does fat contrast water fluid or soft tissue opacities?
    radiograhpically less radiopaque than fluid/ soft tissue
  364. When do you get loss of serosal detail?
    fat absent or sluid or inflammation is present
  365. What is hydroabdomen or ascites and what are a few of its causes?
    fulid in the abdomen due to hypoproteinemia, liver failure, heart failure, renal failure, portal hypertension, etc
  366. How can the structures in a "ground glass" abdomen be visualized?
  367. What is the term for small areas where serosal detail is poor while the rest of the abdomen has good detail.
    focal loss of peritoneal detail
  368. How is gas useful when reading abdominal films?
    within the organs allows differentiation of the inside of the organs and helps to identify them (eg. stomach)
  369. List the radiographic boundaries of the abdomen?
    • diaphragm: cranial, pelvic inlet: caudal
    • spinal column: dorsal, abdominal muscles: lateral and ventral (rectus abdominis m ventral)
  370. Name five structures normally located in the right cranial quadrant.
    Pylorus, body of the pancreas, duodenum, right lobes of the liver, gallbaldder, ascending and transvere colon
  371. List two structures normally found in the left cranial quadrant?
    fundus of stomach, spleen transvere and descending colon
  372. Name two structures normally located in the right caudal quadrant?
    cecum and small intestines
  373. List two negative contrast agents and two positive contrast agents?
    • negative: co2 or air
    • positive: barium and iodine media
  374. How should abdominal films be evaluated?
    systematic and same way everytime
  375. Describe framing the abdomen when reading films?
    diaphragm, spine, musculature of sublumbar soft tissue, part of the pelvis on the film, ventral body wall, falciform fat area, and caudal thorax
  376. List organ check list for viewing abdominal films
    liver, spleen, stomach, loops of small bowels, cecum, colon, kidneys, retroperitoneal space, urinary bladder, areas of organs not normally seen (genital system, ureters, medial iliac lymph nodes, mesenteric lymph node, prostate)
  377. Why should you look at the location of organs noramlly not seen on abdominal radiographs?
    is seen, something is amiss
  378. What can displacement of mobile structures (small and large intestines) tell you in abdominal radiographs
    displaced organ may be normal with an invisible, abnormal structure displacing it (indirect evidence)
  379. What do adjacent organ enlargements do to the cecum and colon?
    readily displace them
  380. Why should you know the position of organs normally not seen on radiographs
    so you can look for and notice visible abnormalities because of them
  381. Why is the position of organs in relationship to each other important
    beacuase invisible structures can displace visible ones when enlarged or displaced
  382. Where is the liver seen in radiographs?
    between stomach and diaphragm
  383. how is the stomach visualized in radiographs
    seen if air is in part of it
  384. List organs that are not normally seen in survey radiographs.
    duodenum, ascending colon, adrenal glands, ureters
  385. When is the cecum seen in survey films?
    if gas in it; on the right side
  386. Where is the transverse colon in VD and lat. films
    VD: crosses midline from right to left, lat: end on caudal to stomach if gas or feces
  387. Where is the rectum seen in radiographs
    continuation of colon in pelvis (often fecal filled)
  388. What is the water density in the caudoventral abdomen?
    urinary bladder
  389. What are two types of gastric foreign bodies from a radiographic standpoint
    radiopaque or radioluscent
  390. How is a radiolucent cloth foreign body visualized radiographically?
    retains barium after stomach is empty
  391. What do radiolucent gastric foreign bodies appear in barium studies?
    radiolucent filling defect in barium
  392. Where is the pylorus located in the abdomen
    ventral right (dog), midline (cat)
  393. Where would gas be expected in the stomach in a DV view?
    fundic region (dorsal up)
  394. Where would gas be expected in the stomach in VD view?
    pyloric region (ventral up) and sometimes fundus
  395. What is the normal position of an unfilled stomach
    within the rib cage
  396. What is the definition of the axis of the stomach
    line through the fundus, body and pylorus
  397. What is the stomach axis in a VD or DV view?
    perpendicular to spine
  398. Can the different parts of the small intestine be differentiated radiographically?
    not in a survey film, maybe after contrast studies
  399. Where is the descending duodenum located?
    right cranial and caudal abdomen
  400. Following the small bowel is overpowering but try to trace out individual loops so any _ loops are not overlooked.
    sentinel/abnormal, distended (indicates problems)
  401. What are the normal, smooth, crater-shaped structures on the antimesenteric side of the descending duodenem lumen?
  402. Can the normal colon be identified on survey radiographs? why?
    usually, presence of fecal matter and gas
  403. What appearance does the colon have in a lateral view?
    flattened question mark, lying on its side
  404. Is the cats cecum visible on survey films
  405. What is seen proximal to an intestinal obstruction? what distally?
    orad: gas, fluid distention (ileus) ; aborad: empty
  406. The relatively mobile colon's abnormal placement can be a
  407. The relatively mobile colon's abnormal placement can be a _ to what is happening around it.
    clue sometimes
  408. Which abdominal lymph node may be surmised to be enlarged in a lateral radiograph by ventral displacement of the descending colon?
    medial iliac lymph nodes
  409. How does an intussusception appear in a barium swallow contrast film?
Card Set
Canine Abdomen 1a
Canine Abdomen 1a