What is percarditis?
Inflammation of the pericardium
What is the middle layer of the heart composed of?
Cardiac muscle tissue, blood vessels and nerves
What are the 3 unique properties of cardiac muscle cells which make them different from the skeletal muscle cells
- 1. Single, centrally located nucleus
- 2. Branching interconnections between cells
- 3. The presence of intercalated discs
What causes striations in cardiac muscles?
Alternating segments of the thick and thin protein filaments
What is the function of desmosomes?
Holds the intercalated disks together, prevents cells from separating during contraction
What are the four chambers of the heart and the AV valves?
- Right and Left Atrium
- Right and Left Ventricle
- Bucuspid and Tricuspid Valves
- Semilunar Pulmonary and Aortic Valves
What is the function of the atria in the heart?
They are the receiving chambers. The Right received deoxyginated Blood while the left receives oxyginated blood.
What is the function fo the ventricles of the heart?
The discharging chambers. The right vent sends the deoxyginated blood to the lungs while the left one sends the oxyginated blood to the rest of the body.
Where is the interventricular septum?
Seperates the right and left ventricles.
What connects the atria to the ventricles?
The tricuspid and bicuspid valves
What are the AV valves composed of?
What is the function of the atrioventricular valves?
They prevent backflow into the atria when the ventricles contract
Name the AV valves.
Tricuspid and Mitral (bucuspid) valves
What veins empty blood into the right atrium?
Superior and inferior vena cova and Coronary sinus
What blood vessel carries blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.
Name the blood vessel that carries blood from the left vent to the body.
Describe the composition and function of blood.
Blood is composed of Plasma, RBC, WBC, and Platelets. Its function is to transport gases,regulate PH, restrict loss of fluid at injury site, defense against toxins and pathogens, and stabilize body temp.
What is plasma?
90% Water, fluid portion of the blood
What is hemopoiesis?
Blood Cell Formation. Occurs in Red bone marrow of axial skeleton.
What is fibrinolysis?
functions in clotting… 4 % of plasma protein
What is hematocit?
The % of blood volume that is RBC's.
Name the 3 formed elements (blood cells) found in blood.
Platelets, Erythrocytes, and Leukocytes.
Describe the structures and functions of Erythrocytes.
No Nuclei or organelles (anucleate), Filles with Hemoglobin for gas transport, contains the plasma membrane protein spectrin and other proteins.
The major factor contribution to blood viscosity.
What is the temperature of blood.
What is the pH of blood?
How many liters of blood are in the human body?
Average volume: 5-6L in males, 4-5L in females
Name the major proteins present in plasma and their proportions.
- Albumin: 60%
- Globulins: 36%
- Fibrinogen: 4%
List the granular Leukocytes.
List the agranular Leukocytes.
List the main functions of RBC, WBC, and platelets.
- RBC's: contributes to gas transport.
- WBC's: Response to bacterial or viral invasions
- Platelets: helps with blood clotting
Describe the appearance of platelets and state their major functions.
- Small fragments of Megakaryocytes, formation is regulated by Thrombopoietin.
- Form a temporary platelet plug that helps seal breaks in blood vessels.
The cessation of bleeding, halts the loss of blood through the walla of damages vessels
List the 3 major steps of coagulation
- 1. Vascular spasm
- 2. Platelet plug formation
- 3. Coagulation (blood clotting)
For each blood type, give the antigen contained and the antibodies produces: A, B, AB, O.
- A: antigen-A; antibodies-B
- B: antigen-B; antibodies-A
- AB: antigen-A, B; antibodies-none
- O: antigen-none; antibodies-A, B
Which blood group is known as a universal donor.
Distinguish between agglutinogens and agglutnins
The agglutinins are the antibodies, and the agglutinogens is the antigen
What is the difference between arteries, veins and Capillaries?
Ateries carry blood away from the heart.
Veins carry blood toward the heart.
Capillaries contact tissue cells and irectly serve cellular needs.
What are intercalated discs?
Interlocking membranes of adjacent cells are held together by desmosomes and linked by gap junctions
What are the THREE circuits of the heart?
Pulmonary: Blood flows from Heart to Lungs and back
Systemic: From heart to all the systems and back
Function of the stomach
Functions of the pancreas
Describe the liver and how it helps in digestion
Know these words... Absorption, Defecation, Digestion, Ingestion, Propulsion, Peristalis
What are Erythrocytes: Structure and Function
WBC: Names, Most and least abundant, produce histamine
What do Plasma cells produce? Produce Antibodies.
Blood pressure: Hypo/hyper tenstion.
Function of the pacreas, importance in digestion, end/exocrine portion
Structure of a nephron
Functions of kidney
what is salive? what is it composed of?
Normal and abnormal urine? what it contains?
First line of defense in the mucosa lining.
distinguish blood from lymph
pacemaker in the heart? Sinoatrial node